x/sheetjs@v0.18.3/README.md

📗 SheetJS Community Edition -- Spreadsheet Data Toolkit
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# [SheetJS](https://sheetjs.com)
The SheetJS Community Edition offers battle-tested open-source solutions forextracting useful data from almost any complex spreadsheet and generating newspreadsheets that will work with legacy and modern software alike.
[SheetJS Pro](https://sheetjs.com/pro) offers solutions beyond data processing:Edit complex templates with ease; let out your inner Picasso with styling; makecustom sheets with images/graphs/PivotTables; evaluate formula expressions andport calculations to web apps; automate common spreadsheet tasks, and much more!
![License](https://img.shields.io/github/license/SheetJS/sheetjs)[![Build Status](https://img.shields.io/github/workflow/status/sheetjs/sheetjs/Tests:%20node.js)](https://github.com/SheetJS/sheetjs/actions)[![Snyk Vulnerabilities](https://img.shields.io/snyk/vulnerabilities/github/SheetJS/sheetjs)](https://snyk.io/test/github/SheetJS/sheetjs)[![npm Downloads](https://img.shields.io/npm/dm/xlsx.svg)](https://npmjs.org/package/xlsx)[![jsDelivr Downloads](https://data.jsdelivr.com/v1/package/npm/xlsx/badge)](https://www.jsdelivr.com/package/npm/xlsx)[![Analytics](https://ga-beacon.appspot.com/UA-36810333-1/SheetJS/sheetjs?pixel)](https://github.com/SheetJS/sheetjs)
[**Browser Test and Support Matrix**](https://oss.sheetjs.com/sheetjs/tests/)
[![Build Status](https://saucelabs.com/browser-matrix/sheetjs.svg)](https://saucelabs.com/u/sheetjs)
**Supported File Formats**
![circo graph of format support](formats.png)![graph legend](legend.png)## Table of Contents
<details> <summary><b>Expand to show Table of Contents</b></summary><!-- toc -->- [Getting Started](#getting-started) * [Installation](#installation) * [Usage](#usage) * [The Zen of SheetJS](#the-zen-of-sheetjs) * [JS Ecosystem Demos](#js-ecosystem-demos)- [Acquiring and Extracting Data](#acquiring-and-extracting-data) * [Parsing Workbooks](#parsing-workbooks) * [Processing JSON and JS Data](#processing-json-and-js-data) * [Processing HTML Tables](#processing-html-tables)- [Processing Data](#processing-data) * [Modifying Workbook Structure](#modifying-workbook-structure) * [Modifying Cell Values](#modifying-cell-values) * [Modifying Other Worksheet / Workbook / Cell Properties](#modifying-other-worksheet--workbook--cell-properties)- [Packaging and Releasing Data](#packaging-and-releasing-data) * [Writing Workbooks](#writing-workbooks) * [Writing Examples](#writing-examples) * [Streaming Write](#streaming-write) * [Generating JSON and JS Data](#generating-json-and-js-data) * [Generating HTML Tables](#generating-html-tables) * [Generating Single-Worksheet Snapshots](#generating-single-worksheet-snapshots)- [Interface](#interface) * [Parsing functions](#parsing-functions) * [Writing functions](#writing-functions) * [Utilities](#utilities)- [Common Spreadsheet Format](#common-spreadsheet-format) * [General Structures](#general-structures) * [Cell Object](#cell-object) + [Data Types](#data-types) + [Dates](#dates) * [Sheet Objects](#sheet-objects) + [Worksheet Object](#worksheet-object) + [Chartsheet Object](#chartsheet-object) + [Macrosheet Object](#macrosheet-object) + [Dialogsheet Object](#dialogsheet-object) * [Workbook Object](#workbook-object) + [Workbook File Properties](#workbook-file-properties) * [Workbook-Level Attributes](#workbook-level-attributes) + [Defined Names](#defined-names) + [Workbook Views](#workbook-views) + [Miscellaneous Workbook Properties](#miscellaneous-workbook-properties) * [Document Features](#document-features) + [Formulae](#formulae) + [Row and Column Properties](#row-and-column-properties) + [Number Formats](#number-formats) + [Hyperlinks](#hyperlinks) + [Cell Comments](#cell-comments) + [Sheet Visibility](#sheet-visibility) + [VBA and Macros](#vba-and-macros)- [Parsing Options](#parsing-options) * [Input Type](#input-type) * [Guessing File Type](#guessing-file-type)- [Writing Options](#writing-options) * [Supported Output Formats](#supported-output-formats) * [Output Type](#output-type)- [Utility Functions](#utility-functions) * [Array of Arrays Input](#array-of-arrays-input) * [Array of Objects Input](#array-of-objects-input) * [HTML Table Input](#html-table-input) * [Formulae Output](#formulae-output) * [Delimiter-Separated Output](#delimiter-separated-output) + [UTF-16 Unicode Text](#utf-16-unicode-text) * [HTML Output](#html-output) * [JSON](#json)- [File Formats](#file-formats)- [Testing](#testing) * [Node](#node) * [Browser](#browser) * [Tested Environments](#tested-environments) * [Test Files](#test-files)- [Contributing](#contributing) * [OSX/Linux](#osxlinux) * [Windows](#windows) * [Tests](#tests)- [License](#license)- [References](#references)<!-- tocstop --></details>## Getting Started
### Installation
**Standalone Browser Scripts**
The complete browser standalone build is saved to `dist/xlsx.full.min.js` andcan be directly added to a page with a `script` tag:
```html<script lang="javascript" src="dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>```
<details> <summary><b>CDN Availability</b> (click to show)</summary>| CDN | URL ||-----------:|:-------------------------------------------|| `unpkg` | <https://unpkg.com/xlsx/> || `jsDelivr` | <https://jsdelivr.com/package/npm/xlsx> || `CDNjs` | <https://cdnjs.com/libraries/xlsx> || `packd` | <https://bundle.run/xlsx@latest?name=XLSX> |
For example, `unpkg` makes the latest version available at:
```html<script src="https://unpkg.com/xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>```
</details><details> <summary><b>Browser builds</b> (click to show)</summary>The complete single-file version is generated at `dist/xlsx.full.min.js`
`dist/xlsx.core.min.js` omits codepage library (no support for XLS encodings)
A slimmer build is generated at `dist/xlsx.mini.min.js`. Compared to full build:- codepage library skipped (no support for XLS encodings)- no support for XLSB / XLS / Lotus 1-2-3 / SpreadsheetML 2003 / Numbers- node stream utils removed</details>
With [bower](https://bower.io/search/?q=js-xlsx):
```bash$ bower install js-xlsx```
**ECMAScript Modules**
The ECMAScript Module build is saved to `xlsx.mjs` and can be directly added toa page with a `script` tag using `type=module`:
```html<script type="module">import { read, writeFileXLSX } from "./xlsx.mjs";
/* load the codepage support library for extended support with older formats */import { set_cptable } from "./xlsx.mjs";import * as cptable from './dist/cpexcel.full.mjs';set_cptable(cptable);</script>```
The [npm package](https://www.npmjs.org/package/xlsx) also exposes the modulewith the `module` parameter, supported in Angular and other projects:
```tsimport { read, writeFileXLSX } from "xlsx";
/* load the codepage support library for extended support with older formats */import { set_cptable } from "xlsx";import * as cptable from 'xlsx/dist/cpexcel.full.mjs';set_cptable(cptable);```
**Deno**
The [`sheetjs`](https://deno.land/x/sheetjs) package is hosted by Deno:
```ts// @deno-types="https://deno.land/x/sheetjs/types/index.d.ts"import * as XLSX from 'https://deno.land/x/sheetjs/xlsx.mjs'
/* load the codepage support library for extended support with older formats */import * as cptable from 'https://deno.land/x/sheetjs/dist/cpexcel.full.mjs';XLSX.set_cptable(cptable);```
**NodeJS**
With [npm](https://www.npmjs.org/package/xlsx):
```bash$ npm install xlsx```
By default, the module supports `require`:
```jsvar XLSX = require("xlsx");```
The module also ships with `xlsx.mjs` for use with `import`:
```jsimport * as XLSX from 'xlsx/xlsx.mjs';
/* load 'fs' for readFile and writeFile support */import * as fs from 'fs';XLSX.set_fs(fs);
/* load the codepage support library for extended support with older formats */import * as cpexcel from 'xlsx/dist/cpexcel.full.mjs';XLSX.set_cptable(cpexcel);```
**Photoshop and InDesign**
`dist/xlsx.extendscript.js` is an ExtendScript build for Photoshop and InDesignthat is included in the `npm` package. It can be directly referenced with a`#include` directive:
```extendscript#include "xlsx.extendscript.js"```

<details> <summary><b>Internet Explorer and ECMAScript 3 Compatibility</b> (click to show)</summary>For broad compatibility with JavaScript engines, the library is written usingECMAScript 3 language dialect as well as some ES5 features like `Array#forEach`.Older browsers require shims to provide missing functions.
To use the shim, add the shim before the script tag that loads `xlsx.js`:
```html<!-- add the shim first --><script type="text/javascript" src="shim.min.js"></script><!-- after the shim is referenced, add the library --><script type="text/javascript" src="xlsx.full.min.js"></script>```
The script also includes `IE_LoadFile` and `IE_SaveFile` for loading and savingfiles in Internet Explorer versions 6-9. The `xlsx.extendscript.js` scriptbundles the shim in a format suitable for Photoshop and other Adobe products.
</details>### Usage
Most scenarios involving spreadsheets and data can be broken into 5 parts:
1) **Acquire Data**: Data may be stored anywhere: local or remote files, databases, HTML TABLE, or even generated programmatically in the web browser.2) **Extract Data**: For spreadsheet files, this involves parsing raw bytes to read the cell data. For general JS data, this involves reshaping the data.3) **Process Data**: From generating summary statistics to cleaning data records, this step is the heart of the problem.4) **Package Data**: This can involve making a new spreadsheet or serializing with `JSON.stringify` or writing XML or simply flattening data for UI tools.5) **Release Data**: Spreadsheet files can be uploaded to a server or written locally. Data can be presented to users in an HTML TABLE or data grid.A common problem involves generating a valid spreadsheet export from data storedin an HTML table. In this example, an HTML TABLE on the page will be scraped,a row will be added to the bottom with the date of the report, and a new filewill be generated and downloaded locally. `XLSX.writeFile` takes care ofpackaging the data and attempting a local download:
```js// Acquire Data (reference to the HTML table)var table_elt = document.getElementById("my-table-id");
// Extract Data (create a workbook object from the table)var workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(table_elt);
// Process Data (add a new row)var ws = workbook.Sheets["Sheet1"];XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [["Created "+new Date().toISOString()]], {origin:-1});
// Package and Release Data (`writeFile` tries to write and save an XLSB file)XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "Report.xlsb");```
This library tries to simplify steps 2 and 4 with functions to extract usefuldata from spreadsheet files (`read` / `readFile`) and generate new spreadsheetfiles from data (`write` / `writeFile`). Additional utility functions like`table_to_book` work with other common data sources like HTML tables.
This documentation and various demo projects cover a number of common scenariosand approaches for steps 1 and 5.
Utility functions help with step 3.
["Acquiring and Extracting Data"](#acquiring-and-extracting-data) describessolutions for common data import scenarios.
["Packaging and Releasing Data"](#packaging-and-releasing-data) describessolutions for common data export scenarios.
["Processing Data"](#packaging-and-releasing-data) describes solutions forcommon workbook processing and manipulation scenarios.
["Utility Functions"](#utility-functions) details utility functions fortranslating JSON Arrays and other common JS structures into worksheet objects.
### The Zen of SheetJS
_Data processing should fit in any workflow_
The library does not impose a separate lifecycle. It fits nicely in websitesand apps built using any framework. The plain JS data objects play nice withWeb Workers and future APIs.
_JavaScript is a powerful language for data processing_
The ["Common Spreadsheet Format"](#common-spreadsheet-format) is a simple objectrepresentation of the core concepts of a workbook. The various functions in thelibrary provide low-level tools for working with the object.
For friendly JS processing, there are utility functions for converting parts ofa worksheet to/from an Array of Arrays. The following example combines powerfulJS Array methods with a network request library to download data, select theinformation we want and create a workbook file:
<details> <summary><b>Get Data from a JSON Endpoint and Generate a Workbook</b> (click to show)</summary>The goal is to generate a XLSB workbook of US President names and birthdays.
**Acquire Data**
_Raw Data_
<https://theunitedstates.io/congress-legislators/executive.json> has the desireddata. For example, John Adams:
```js{ "id": { /* (data omitted) */ }, "name": { "first": "John", // <-- first name "last": "Adams" // <-- last name }, "bio": { "birthday": "1735-10-19", // <-- birthday "gender": "M" }, "terms": [ { "type": "viceprez", /* (other fields omitted) */ }, { "type": "viceprez", /* (other fields omitted) */ }, { "type": "prez", /* (other fields omitted) */ } // <-- look for "prez" ]}```
_Filtering for Presidents_
The dataset includes Aaron Burr, a Vice President who was never President!
`Array#filter` creates a new array with the desired rows. A President servedat least one term with `type` set to `"prez"`. To test if a particular row hasat least one `"prez"` term, `Array#some` is another native JS function. Thecomplete filter would be:
```jsconst prez = raw_data.filter(row => row.terms.some(term => term.type === "prez"));```
_Lining up the data_
For this example, the name will be the first name combined with the last name(`row.name.first + " " + row.name.last`) and the birthday will be the subfield`row.bio.birthday`. Using `Array#map`, the dataset can be massaged in one call:
```jsconst rows = prez.map(row => ({ name: row.name.first + " " + row.name.last, birthday: row.bio.birthday}));```
The result is an array of "simple" objects with no nesting:
```js[ { name: "George Washington", birthday: "1732-02-22" }, { name: "John Adams", birthday: "1735-10-19" }, // ... one row per President]```
**Extract Data**
With the cleaned dataset, `XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet` generates a worksheet:
```jsconst worksheet = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet(rows);```
`XLSX.utils.book_new` creates a new workbook and `XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet`appends a worksheet to the workbook. The new worksheet will be called "Dates":
```jsconst workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, "Dates");```
**Process Data**
_Fixing headers_
By default, `json_to_sheet` creates a worksheet with a header row. In this case,the headers come from the JS object keys: "name" and "birthday".
The headers are in cells A1 and B1. `XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa` can write textvalues to the existing worksheet starting at cell A1:
```jsXLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, [["Name", "Birthday"]], { origin: "A1" });```
_Fixing Column Widths_
Some of the names are longer than the default column width. Column widths areset by [setting the `"!cols"` worksheet property](#row-and-column-properties).
The following line sets the width of column A to approximately 10 characters:
```jsworksheet["!cols"] = [ { wch: 10 } ]; // set column A width to 10 characters```
One `Array#reduce` call over `rows` can calculate the maximum width:
```jsconst max_width = rows.reduce((w, r) => Math.max(w, r.name.length), 10);worksheet["!cols"] = [ { wch: max_width } ];```
Note: If the starting point was a file or HTML table, `XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json`will generate an array of JS objects.
**Package and Release Data**
`XLSX.writeFile` creates a spreadsheet file and tries to write it to the system.In the browser, it will try to prompt the user to download the file. In NodeJS,it will write to the local directory.
```jsXLSX.writeFile(workbook, "Presidents.xlsx");```
**Complete Example**
```js// Uncomment the next line for use in NodeJS:// const XLSX = require("xlsx"), axios = require("axios");
(async() => { /* fetch JSON data and parse */ const url = "https://theunitedstates.io/congress-legislators/executive.json"; const raw_data = (await axios(url, {responseType: "json"})).data; /* filter for the Presidents */ const prez = raw_data.filter(row => row.terms.some(term => term.type === "prez")); /* flatten objects */ const rows = prez.map(row => ({ name: row.name.first + " " + row.name.last, birthday: row.bio.birthday })); /* generate worksheet and workbook */ const worksheet = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet(rows); const workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new(); XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, "Dates"); /* fix headers */ XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, [["Name", "Birthday"]], { origin: "A1" }); /* calculate column width */ const max_width = rows.reduce((w, r) => Math.max(w, r.name.length), 10); worksheet["!cols"] = [ { wch: max_width } ]; /* create an XLSX file and try to save to Presidents.xlsx */ XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "Presidents.xlsx");})();```
For use in the web browser, assuming the snippet is saved to `snippet.js`,script tags should be used to include the `axios` and `xlsx` standalone builds:
```html<script src="https://unpkg.com/xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script><script src="https://unpkg.com/axios/dist/axios.min.js"></script><script src="snippet.js"></script>```

</details>_File formats are implementation details_
The parser covers a wide gamut of common spreadsheet file formats to ensure that"HTML-saved-as-XLS" files work as well as actual XLS or XLSX files.
The writer supports a number of common output formats for broad compatibilitywith the data ecosystem.
To the greatest extent possible, data processing code should not have to worryabout the specific file formats involved.

### JS Ecosystem Demos
The [`demos` directory](demos/) includes sample projects for:
**Frameworks and APIs**- [`angularjs`](demos/angular/)- [`angular and ionic`](demos/angular2/)- [`knockout`](demos/knockout/)- [`meteor`](demos/meteor/)- [`react and react-native`](demos/react/)- [`vue 2.x and weex`](demos/vue/)- [`XMLHttpRequest and fetch`](demos/xhr/)- [`nodejs server`](demos/server/)- [`databases and key/value stores`](demos/database/)- [`typed arrays and math`](demos/array/)**Bundlers and Tooling**- [`browserify`](demos/browserify/)- [`fusebox`](demos/fusebox/)- [`parcel`](demos/parcel/)- [`requirejs`](demos/requirejs/)- [`rollup`](demos/rollup/)- [`systemjs`](demos/systemjs/)- [`typescript`](demos/typescript/)- [`webpack 2.x`](demos/webpack/)**Platforms and Integrations**- [`deno`](demos/deno/)- [`electron application`](demos/electron/)- [`nw.js application`](demos/nwjs/)- [`Chrome / Chromium extensions`](demos/chrome/)- [`Download a Google Sheet locally`](demos/google-sheet/)- [`Adobe ExtendScript`](demos/extendscript/)- [`Headless Browsers`](demos/headless/)- [`canvas-datagrid`](demos/datagrid/)- [`x-spreadsheet`](demos/xspreadsheet/)- [`Swift JSC and other engines`](demos/altjs/)- [`"serverless" functions`](demos/function/)- [`internet explorer`](demos/oldie/)Other examples are included in the [showcase](demos/showcase/).
<https://sheetjs.com/demos/modify.html> shows a complete example of reading,modifying, and writing files.
<https://github.com/SheetJS/sheetjs/blob/HEAD/bin/xlsx.njs> is the command-linetool included with node installations, reading spreadsheet files and exportingthe contents in various formats.## Acquiring and Extracting Data
### Parsing Workbooks
**API**
_Extract data from spreadsheet bytes_
```jsvar workbook = XLSX.read(data, opts);```
The `read` method can extract data from spreadsheet bytes stored in a JS string,"binary string", NodeJS buffer or typed array (`Uint8Array` or `ArrayBuffer`).

_Read spreadsheet bytes from a local file and extract data_
```jsvar workbook = XLSX.readFile(filename, opts);```
The `readFile` method attempts to read a spreadsheet file at the supplied path.Browsers generally do not allow reading files in this way (it is deemed asecurity risk), and attempts to read files in this way will throw an error.
The second `opts` argument is optional. ["Parsing Options"](#parsing-options)covers the supported properties and behaviors.
**Examples**
Here are a few common scenarios (click on each subtitle to see the code):
<details> <summary><b>Local file in a NodeJS server</b> (click to show)</summary>`readFile` uses `fs.readFileSync` under the hood:
```jsvar XLSX = require("xlsx");
var workbook = XLSX.readFile("test.xlsx");```
For Node ESM, the `readFile` helper is not enabled. Instead, `fs.readFileSync`should be used to read the file data as a `Buffer` for use with `XLSX.read`:
```jsimport { readFileSync } from "fs";import { read } from "xlsx/xlsx.mjs";
const buf = readFileSync("test.xlsx");/* buf is a Buffer */const workbook = read(buf);```
</details><details> <summary><b>Local file in a Deno application</b> (click to show)</summary>`readFile` uses `Deno.readFileSync` under the hood:
```js// @deno-types="https://deno.land/x/sheetjs/types/index.d.ts"import * as XLSX from 'https://deno.land/x/sheetjs/xlsx.mjs'
const workbook = XLSX.readFile("test.xlsx");```
Applications reading files must be invoked with the `--allow-read` flag. The[`deno` demo](demos/deno/) has more examples
</details><details> <summary><b>User-submitted file in a web page ("Drag-and-Drop")</b> (click to show)</summary>For modern websites targeting Chrome 76+, `File#arrayBuffer` is recommended:
```js// XLSX is a global from the standalone script
async function handleDropAsync(e) { e.stopPropagation(); e.preventDefault(); const f = e.dataTransfer.files[0]; /* f is a File */ const data = await f.arrayBuffer(); /* data is an ArrayBuffer */ const workbook = XLSX.read(data); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */}drop_dom_element.addEventListener("drop", handleDropAsync, false);```
For maximal compatibility, the `FileReader` API should be used:
```jsfunction handleDrop(e) { e.stopPropagation(); e.preventDefault(); var f = e.dataTransfer.files[0]; /* f is a File */ var reader = new FileReader(); reader.onload = function(e) { var data = e.target.result; /* reader.readAsArrayBuffer(file) -> data will be an ArrayBuffer */ var workbook = XLSX.read(data); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */ }; reader.readAsArrayBuffer(f);}drop_dom_element.addEventListener("drop", handleDrop, false);```
<https://oss.sheetjs.com/sheetjs/> demonstrates the FileReader technique.</details><details> <summary><b>User-submitted file with an HTML INPUT element</b> (click to show)</summary>Starting with an HTML INPUT element with `type="file"`:
```html<input type="file" id="input_dom_element">```
For modern websites targeting Chrome 76+, `Blob#arrayBuffer` is recommended:
```js// XLSX is a global from the standalone script
async function handleFileAsync(e) { const file = e.target.files[0]; const data = await file.arrayBuffer(); /* data is an ArrayBuffer */ const workbook = XLSX.read(data); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */}input_dom_element.addEventListener("change", handleFileAsync, false);```
For broader support (including IE10+), the `FileReader` approach is recommended:
```jsfunction handleFile(e) { var file = e.target.files[0]; var reader = new FileReader(); reader.onload = function(e) { var data = e.target.result; /* reader.readAsArrayBuffer(file) -> data will be an ArrayBuffer */ var workbook = XLSX.read(e.target.result); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */ }; reader.readAsArrayBuffer(file);}input_dom_element.addEventListener("change", handleFile, false);```
The [`oldie` demo](demos/oldie/) shows an IE-compatible fallback scenario.
</details><details> <summary><b>Fetching a file in the web browser ("Ajax")</b> (click to show)</summary>For modern websites targeting Chrome 42+, `fetch` is recommended:
```js// XLSX is a global from the standalone script
(async() => { const url = "http://oss.sheetjs.com/test_files/formula_stress_test.xlsx"; const data = await (await fetch(url)).arrayBuffer(); /* data is an ArrayBuffer */ const workbook = XLSX.read(data); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */})();```
For broader support, the `XMLHttpRequest` approach is recommended:
```jsvar url = "http://oss.sheetjs.com/test_files/formula_stress_test.xlsx";
/* set up async GET request */var req = new XMLHttpRequest();req.open("GET", url, true);req.responseType = "arraybuffer";
req.onload = function(e) { var workbook = XLSX.read(req.response); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */};
req.send();```
The [`xhr` demo](demos/xhr/) includes a longer discussion and more examples.
<http://oss.sheetjs.com/sheetjs/ajax.html> shows fallback approaches for IE6+.</details><details> <summary><b>Local file in a PhotoShop or InDesign plugin</b> (click to show)</summary>`readFile` wraps the `File` logic in Photoshop and other ExtendScript targets.The specified path should be an absolute path:
```js#include "xlsx.extendscript.js"
/* Read test.xlsx from the Documents folder */var workbook = XLSX.readFile(Folder.myDocuments + "/test.xlsx");```
The [`extendscript` demo](demos/extendscript/) includes a more complex example.
</details><details> <summary><b>Local file in an Electron app</b> (click to show)</summary>`readFile` can be used in the renderer process:
```js/* From the renderer process */var XLSX = require("xlsx");
var workbook = XLSX.readFile(path);```
Electron APIs have changed over time. The [`electron` demo](demos/electron/)shows a complete example and details the required version-specific settings.
</details><details> <summary><b>Local file in a mobile app with React Native</b> (click to show)</summary>The [`react` demo](demos/react) includes a sample React Native app.
Since React Native does not provide a way to read files from the filesystem, athird-party library must be used. The following libraries have been tested:
- [`react-native-file-access`](https://npm.im/react-native-file-access)The `base64` encoding returns strings compatible with the `base64` type:
```jsimport XLSX from "xlsx";import { FileSystem } from "react-native-file-access";
const b64 = await FileSystem.readFile(path, "base64");/* b64 is a base64 string */const workbook = XLSX.read(b64, {type: "base64"});```
- [`react-native-fs`](https://npm.im/react-native-fs)The `ascii` encoding returns binary strings compatible with the `binary` type:
```jsimport XLSX from "xlsx";import { readFile } from "react-native-fs";
const bstr = await readFile(path, "ascii");/* bstr is a binary string */const workbook = XLSX.read(bstr, {type: "binary"});```
</details><details> <summary><b>NodeJS Server File Uploads</b> (click to show)</summary>`read` can accept a NodeJS buffer. `readFile` can read files generated by aHTTP POST request body parser like [`formidable`](https://npm.im/formidable):
```jsconst XLSX = require("xlsx");const http = require("http");const formidable = require("formidable");
const server = http.createServer((req, res) => { const form = new formidable.IncomingForm(); form.parse(req, (err, fields, files) => { /* grab the first file */ const f = Object.entries(files)[0][1]; const path = f.filepath; const workbook = XLSX.readFile(path); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */ });}).listen(process.env.PORT || 7262);```
The [`server` demo](demos/server) has more advanced examples.
</details><details> <summary><b>Download files in a NodeJS process</b> (click to show)</summary>Node 17.5 and 18.0 have native support for fetch:
```jsconst XLSX = require("xlsx");
const data = await (await fetch(url)).arrayBuffer();/* data is an ArrayBuffer */const workbook = XLSX.read(data);```
For broader compatibility, third-party modules are recommended.
[`request`](https://npm.im/request) requires a `null` encoding to yield Buffers:
```jsvar XLSX = require("xlsx");var request = require("request");
request({url: url, encoding: null}, function(err, resp, body) { var workbook = XLSX.read(body); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */});```
[`axios`](https://npm.im/axios) works the same way in browser and in NodeJS:
```jsconst XLSX = require("xlsx");const axios = require("axios");
(async() => { const res = await axios.get(url, {responseType: "arraybuffer"}); /* res.data is a Buffer */ const workbook = XLSX.read(res.data); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */})();```
</details><details> <summary><b>Download files in an Electron app</b> (click to show)</summary>The `net` module in the main process can make HTTP/HTTPS requests to externalresources. Responses should be manually concatenated using `Buffer.concat`:
```jsconst XLSX = require("xlsx");const { net } = require("electron");
const req = net.request(url);req.on("response", (res) => { const bufs = []; // this array will collect all of the buffers res.on("data", (chunk) => { bufs.push(chunk); }); res.on("end", () => { const workbook = XLSX.read(Buffer.concat(bufs)); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */ });});req.end();```
</details><details> <summary><b>Readable Streams in NodeJS</b> (click to show)</summary>When dealing with Readable Streams, the easiest approach is to buffer the streamand process the whole thing at the end:
```jsvar fs = require("fs");var XLSX = require("xlsx");
function process_RS(stream, cb) { var buffers = []; stream.on("data", function(data) { buffers.push(data); }); stream.on("end", function() { var buffer = Buffer.concat(buffers); var workbook = XLSX.read(buffer, {type:"buffer"}); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook IN THE CALLBACK */ cb(workbook); });}```
</details><details> <summary><b>ReadableStream in the browser</b> (click to show)</summary>When dealing with `ReadableStream`, the easiest approach is to buffer the streamand process the whole thing at the end:
```js// XLSX is a global from the standalone script
async function process_RS(stream) { /* collect data */ const buffers = []; const reader = stream.getReader(); for(;;) { const res = await reader.read(); if(res.value) buffers.push(res.value); if(res.done) break; } /* concat */ const out = new Uint8Array(buffers.reduce((acc, v) => acc + v.length, 0)); let off = 0; for(const u8 of arr) { out.set(u8, off); off += u8.length; } return out;}
const data = await process_RS(stream);/* data is Uint8Array */const workbook = XLSX.read(data);```
</details>More detailed examples are covered in the [included demos](demos/)
### Processing JSON and JS Data
JSON and JS data tend to represent single worksheets. This section will use afew utility functions to generate workbooks.
_Create a new Workbook_
```jsvar workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();```
The `book_new` utility function creates an empty workbook with no worksheets.
Spreadsheet software generally require at least one worksheet and enforce therequirement in the user interface. This library enforces the requirement atwrite time, throwing errors if an empty workbook is passed to write functions.

**API**
_Create a worksheet from an array of arrays of JS values_
```jsvar worksheet = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet(aoa, opts);```
The `aoa_to_sheet` utility function walks an "array of arrays" in row-majororder, generating a worksheet object. The following snippet generates a sheetwith cell `A1` set to the string `A1`, cell `B1` set to `B1`, etc:
```jsvar worksheet = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([ ["A1", "B1", "C1"], ["A2", "B2", "C2"], ["A3", "B3", "C3"]]);```
["Array of Arrays Input"](#array-of-arrays-input) describes the function and theoptional `opts` argument in more detail.

_Create a worksheet from an array of JS objects_
```jsvar worksheet = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet(jsa, opts);```
The `json_to_sheet` utility function walks an array of JS objects in order,generating a worksheet object. By default, it will generate a header row andone row per object in the array. The optional `opts` argument has settings tocontrol the column order and header output.
["Array of Objects Input"](#array-of-arrays-input) describes the function andthe optional `opts` argument in more detail.
**Examples**
["Zen of SheetJS"](#the-zen-of-sheetjs) contains a detailed example "Get Datafrom a JSON Endpoint and Generate a Workbook"

[`x-spreadsheet`](https://github.com/myliang/x-spreadsheet) is an interactivedata grid for previewing and modifying structured data in the web browser. The[`xspreadsheet` demo](/demos/xspreadsheet) includes a sample script with the`xtos` function for converting from x-spreadsheet data object to a workbook.<https://oss.sheetjs.com/sheetjs/x-spreadsheet> is a live demo.<details> <summary><b>Records from a database query (SQL or no-SQL)</b> (click to show)</summary>The [`database` demo](/demos/database/) includes examples of working withdatabases and query results.
</details>
<details> <summary><b>Numerical Computations with TensorFlow.js</b> (click to show)</summary>[`@tensorflow/tfjs`](@tensorflow/tfjs) and other libraries expect data in simplearrays, well-suited for worksheets where each column is a data vector. That isthe transpose of how most people use spreadsheets, where each row is a vector.
When recovering data from `tfjs`, the returned data points are stored in a typedarray. An array of arrays can be constructed with loops. `Array#unshift` canprepend a title row before the conversion:
```jsconst XLSX = require("xlsx");const tf = require('@tensorflow/tfjs');
/* suppose xs and ys are vectors (1D tensors) -> tfarr will be a typed array */const tfdata = tf.stack([xs, ys]).transpose();const shape = tfdata.shape;const tfarr = tfdata.dataSync();
/* construct the array of arrays */const aoa = [];for(let j = 0; j < shape[0]; ++j) { aoa[j] = []; for(let i = 0; i < shape[1]; ++i) aoa[j][i] = tfarr[j * shape[1] + i];}/* add headers to the top */aoa.unshift(["x", "y"]);
/* generate worksheet */const worksheet = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet(aoa);```
The [`array` demo](demos/array/) shows a complete example.
</details>
### Processing HTML Tables
**API**
_Create a worksheet by scraping an HTML TABLE in the page_
```jsvar worksheet = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(dom_element, opts);```
The `table_to_sheet` utility function takes a DOM TABLE element and iteratesthrough the rows to generate a worksheet. The `opts` argument is optional.["HTML Table Input"](#html-table-input) describes the function in more detail.


_Create a workbook by scraping an HTML TABLE in the page_
```jsvar workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(dom_element, opts);```
The `table_to_book` utility function follows the same logic as `table_to_sheet`.After generating a worksheet, it creates a blank workbook and appends thespreadsheet.
The options argument supports the same options as `table_to_sheet`, with theaddition of a `sheet` property to control the worksheet name. If the propertyis missing or no options are specified, the default name `Sheet1` is used.
**Examples**
Here are a few common scenarios (click on each subtitle to see the code):
<details> <summary><b>HTML TABLE element in a webpage</b> (click to show)</summary>```html<!-- include the standalone script and shim. this uses the UNPKG CDN --><script src="https://unpkg.com/xlsx/dist/shim.min.js"></script><script src="https://unpkg.com/xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script><!-- example table with id attribute --><table id="tableau"> <tr><td>Sheet</td><td>JS</td></tr> <tr><td>12345</td><td>67</td></tr></table><!-- this block should appear after the table HTML and the standalone script --><script type="text/javascript"> var workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(document.getElementById("tableau")); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */</script>```
Multiple tables on a web page can be converted to individual worksheets:
```js/* create new workbook */var workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();
/* convert table "table1" to worksheet named "Sheet1" */var sheet1 = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(document.getElementById("table1"));XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, sheet1, "Sheet1");
/* convert table "table2" to worksheet named "Sheet2" */var sheet2 = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(document.getElementById("table2"));XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, sheet2, "Sheet2");
/* workbook now has 2 worksheets */```
Alternatively, the HTML code can be extracted and parsed:
```jsvar htmlstr = document.getElementById("tableau").outerHTML;var workbook = XLSX.read(htmlstr, {type:"string"});```
</details><details> <summary><b>Chrome/Chromium Extension</b> (click to show)</summary>The [`chrome` demo](demos/chrome/) shows a complete example and details therequired permissions and other settings.
In an extension, it is recommended to generate the workbook in a content scriptand pass the object back to the extension:
```js/* in the worker script */chrome.runtime.onMessage.addListener(function(msg, sender, cb) { /* pass a message like { sheetjs: true } from the extension to scrape */ if(!msg || !msg.sheetjs) return; /* create a new workbook */ var workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new(); /* loop through each table element */ var tables = document.getElementsByTagName("table") for(var i = 0; i < tables.length; ++i) { var worksheet = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(tables[i]); XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, "Table" + i); } /* pass back to the extension */ return cb(workbook);});```
</details><details> <summary><b>Server-Side HTML Tables with Headless Chrome</b> (click to show)</summary>The [`headless` demo](demos/headless/) includes a complete demo to convert HTMLfiles to XLSB workbooks. The core idea is to add the script to the page, parsethe table in the page context, generate a `base64` workbook and send it backfor further processing:
```jsconst XLSX = require("xlsx");const { readFileSync } = require("fs"), puppeteer = require("puppeteer");
const url = `https://sheetjs.com/demos/table`;
/* get the standalone build source (node_modules/xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js) */const lib = readFileSync(require.resolve("xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"), "utf8");
(async() => { /* start browser and go to web page */ const browser = await puppeteer.launch(); const page = await browser.newPage(); await page.goto(url, {waitUntil: "networkidle2"}); /* inject library */ await page.addScriptTag({content: lib}); /* this function `s5s` will be called by the script below, receiving the Base64-encoded file */ await page.exposeFunction("s5s", async(b64) => { const workbook = XLSX.read(b64, {type: "base64" }); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */ }); /* generate XLSB file in webpage context and send back result */ await page.addScriptTag({content: ` /* call table_to_book on first table */ var workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(document.querySelector("TABLE")); /* generate XLSX file */ var b64 = XLSX.write(workbook, {type: "base64", bookType: "xlsb"}); /* call "s5s" hook exposed from the node process */ window.s5s(b64); `}); /* cleanup */ await browser.close();})();```
</details><details> <summary><b>Server-Side HTML Tables with Headless WebKit</b> (click to show)</summary>The [`headless` demo](demos/headless/) includes a complete demo to convert HTMLfiles to XLSB workbooks using [PhantomJS](https://phantomjs.org/). The core ideais to add the script to the page, parse the table in the page context, generatea `binary` workbook and send it back for further processing:
```jsvar XLSX = require('xlsx');var page = require('webpage').create();
/* this code will be run in the page */var code = [ "function(){", /* call table_to_book on first table */ "var wb = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(document.body.getElementsByTagName('table')[0]);", /* generate XLSB file and return binary string */ "return XLSX.write(wb, {type: 'binary', bookType: 'xlsb'});","}" ].join("");
page.open('https://sheetjs.com/demos/table', function() { /* Load the browser script from the UNPKG CDN */ page.includeJs("https://unpkg.com/xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js", function() { /* The code will return an XLSB file encoded as binary string */ var bin = page.evaluateJavaScript(code); var workbook = XLSX.read(bin, {type: "binary"}); /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */ phantom.exit(); });});```
</details><details> <summary><b>NodeJS HTML Tables without a browser</b> (click to show)</summary>NodeJS does not include a DOM implementation and Puppeteer requires a heftyChromium build. [`jsdom`](https://npm.im/jsdom) is a lightweight alternative:
```jsconst XLSX = require("xlsx");const { readFileSync } = require("fs");const { JSDOM } = require("jsdom");
/* obtain HTML string. This example reads from test.html */const html_str = fs.readFileSync("test.html", "utf8");/* get first TABLE element */const doc = new JSDOM(html_str).window.document.querySelector("table");/* generate workbook */const workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(doc);```
</details>## Processing Data
The ["Common Spreadsheet Format"](#common-spreadsheet-format) is a simple objectrepresentation of the core concepts of a workbook. The utility functions workwith the object representation and are intended to handle common use cases.
### Modifying Workbook Structure
**API**
_Append a Worksheet to a Workbook_
```jsXLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, sheet_name);```
The `book_append_sheet` utility function appends a worksheet to the workbook.The third argument specifies the desired worksheet name. Multiple worksheets canbe added to a workbook by calling the function multiple times.
_List the Worksheet names in tab order_
```jsvar wsnames = workbook.SheetNames;```
The `SheetNames` property of the workbook object is a list of the worksheetnames in "tab order". API functions will look at this array.
_Replace a Worksheet in place_
```jsworkbook.Sheets[sheet_name] = new_worksheet;```
The `Sheets` property of the workbook object is an object whose keys are namesand whose values are worksheet objects. By reassigning to a property of the`Sheets` object, the worksheet object can be changed without disrupting therest of the worksheet structure.
**Examples**
<details> <summary><b>Add a new worksheet to a workbook</b> (click to show)</summary>This example uses [`XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet`](#array-of-arrays-input).
```jsvar ws_name = "SheetJS";
/* Create worksheet */var ws_data = [ [ "S", "h", "e", "e", "t", "J", "S" ], [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]];var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet(ws_data);
/* Add the worksheet to the workbook */XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(wb, ws, ws_name);```
</details>### Modifying Cell Values
**API**
_Modify a single cell value in a worksheet_
```jsXLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, [[new_value]], { origin: address });```
_Modify multiple cell values in a worksheet_
```jsXLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, aoa, opts);```
The `sheet_add_aoa` utility function modifies cell values in a worksheet. Thefirst argument is the worksheet object. The second argument is an array ofarrays of values. The `origin` key of the third argument controls where cellswill be written. The following snippet sets `B3=1` and `E5="abc"`:
```jsXLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, [ [1], // <-- Write 1 to cell B3 , // <-- Do nothing in row 4 [/*B5*/, /*C5*/, /*D5*/, "abc"] // <-- Write "abc" to cell E5], { origin: "B3" });```
["Array of Arrays Input"](#array-of-arrays-input) describes the function and theoptional `opts` argument in more detail.
**Examples**
<details> <summary><b>Appending rows to a worksheet</b> (click to show)</summary>The special origin value `-1` instructs `sheet_add_aoa` to start in column A ofthe row after the last row in the range, appending the data:
```jsXLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, [ ["first row after data", 1], ["second row after data", 2]], { origin: -1 });```
</details>
### Modifying Other Worksheet / Workbook / Cell Properties
The ["Common Spreadsheet Format"](#common-spreadsheet-format) section describesthe object structures in greater detail.
## Packaging and Releasing Data
### Writing Workbooks
**API**
_Generate spreadsheet bytes (file) from data_
```jsvar data = XLSX.write(workbook, opts);```
The `write` method attempts to package data from the workbook into a file inmemory. By default, XLSX files are generated, but that can be controlled withthe `bookType` property of the `opts` argument. Based on the `type` option,the data can be stored as a "binary string", JS string, `Uint8Array` or Buffer.
The second `opts` argument is required. ["Writing Options"](#writing-options)covers the supported properties and behaviors.
_Generate and attempt to save file_
```jsXLSX.writeFile(workbook, filename, opts);```
The `writeFile` method packages the data and attempts to save the new file. Theexport file format is determined by the extension of `filename` (`SheetJS.xlsx`signals XLSX export, `SheetJS.xlsb` signals XLSB export, etc).
The `writeFile` method uses platform-specific APIs to initiate the file save. InNodeJS, `fs.readFileSync` can create a file. In the web browser, a download isattempted using the HTML5 `download` attribute, with fallbacks for IE.
_Generate and attempt to save an XLSX file_
```jsXLSX.writeFileXLSX(workbook, filename, opts);```
The `writeFile` method embeds a number of different export functions. This isgreat for developer experience but not amenable to tree shaking using thecurrent developer tools. When only XLSX exports are needed, this method avoidsreferencing the other export functions.
The second `opts` argument is optional. ["Writing Options"](#writing-options)covers the supported properties and behaviors.
**Examples**
<details> <summary><b>Local file in a NodeJS server</b> (click to show)</summary>`writeFile` uses `fs.writeFileSync` in server environments:
```jsvar XLSX = require("xlsx");
/* output format determined by filename */XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "out.xlsb");```
For Node ESM, the `writeFile` helper is not enabled. Instead, `fs.writeFileSync`should be used to write the file data to a `Buffer` for use with `XLSX.write`:
```jsimport { writeFileSync } from "fs";import { write } from "xlsx/xlsx.mjs";
const buf = write(workbook, {type: "buffer", bookType: "xlsb"});/* buf is a Buffer */const workbook = writeFileSync("out.xlsb", buf);```
</details><details> <summary><b>Local file in a Deno application</b> (click to show)</summary>`writeFile` uses `Deno.writeFileSync` under the hood:
```js// @deno-types="https://deno.land/x/sheetjs/types/index.d.ts"import * as XLSX from 'https://deno.land/x/sheetjs/xlsx.mjs'
XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "test.xlsx");```
Applications writing files must be invoked with the `--allow-write` flag. The[`deno` demo](demos/deno/) has more examples
</details><details> <summary><b>Local file in a PhotoShop or InDesign plugin</b> (click to show)</summary>`writeFile` wraps the `File` logic in Photoshop and other ExtendScript targets.The specified path should be an absolute path:
```js#include "xlsx.extendscript.js"
/* output format determined by filename */XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "out.xlsx");/* at this point, out.xlsx is a file that you can distribute */```
The [`extendscript` demo](demos/extendscript/) includes a more complex example.
</details><details> <summary><b>Download a file in the browser to the user machine</b> (click to show)</summary>`XLSX.writeFile` wraps a few techniques for triggering a file save:
- `URL` browser API creates an object URL for the file, which the library uses by creating a link and forcing a click. It is supported in modern browsers.- `msSaveBlob` is an IE10+ API for triggering a file save.- `IE_FileSave` uses VBScript and ActiveX to write a file in IE6+ for Windows XP and Windows 7. The shim must be included in the containing HTML page.There is no standard way to determine if the actual file has been downloaded.
```js/* output format determined by filename */XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "out.xlsb");/* at this point, out.xlsb will have been downloaded */```
</details><details> <summary><b>Download a file in legacy browsers</b> (click to show)</summary>`XLSX.writeFile` techniques work for most modern browsers as well as older IE.For much older browsers, there are workarounds implemented by wrapper libraries.
[`FileSaver.js`](https://github.com/eligrey/FileSaver.js/) implements `saveAs`.Note: `XLSX.writeFile` will automatically call `saveAs` if available.
```js/* bookType can be any supported output type */var wopts = { bookType:"xlsx", bookSST:false, type:"array" };
var wbout = XLSX.write(workbook,wopts);
/* the saveAs call downloads a file on the local machine */saveAs(new Blob([wbout],{type:"application/octet-stream"}), "test.xlsx");```
[`Downloadify`](https://github.com/dcneiner/downloadify) uses a Flash SWF buttonto generate local files, suitable for environments where ActiveX is unavailable:
```jsDownloadify.create(id,{ /* other options are required! read the downloadify docs for more info */ filename: "test.xlsx", data: function() { return XLSX.write(wb, {bookType:"xlsx", type:"base64"}); }, append: false, dataType: "base64"});```
The [`oldie` demo](demos/oldie/) shows an IE-compatible fallback scenario.
</details><details> <summary><b>Browser upload file (ajax)</b> (click to show)</summary>A complete example using XHR is [included in the XHR demo](demos/xhr/), alongwith examples for fetch and wrapper libraries. This example assumes the servercan handle Base64-encoded files (see the demo for a basic nodejs server):
```js/* in this example, send a base64 string to the server */var wopts = { bookType:"xlsx", bookSST:false, type:"base64" };
var wbout = XLSX.write(workbook,wopts);
var req = new XMLHttpRequest();req.open("POST", "/upload", true);var formdata = new FormData();formdata.append("file", "test.xlsx"); // <-- server expects `file` to hold nameformdata.append("data", wbout); // <-- `data` holds the base64-encoded datareq.send(formdata);```
</details><details> <summary><b>PhantomJS (Headless Webkit) File Generation</b> (click to show)</summary>The [`headless` demo](demos/headless/) includes a complete demo to convert HTMLfiles to XLSB workbooks using [PhantomJS](https://phantomjs.org/). PhantomJS`fs.write` supports writing files from the main process but has a differentinterface from the NodeJS `fs` module:
```jsvar XLSX = require('xlsx');var fs = require('fs');
/* generate a binary string */var bin = XLSX.write(workbook, { type:"binary", bookType: "xlsx" });/* write to file */fs.write("test.xlsx", bin, "wb");```
Note: The section ["Processing HTML Tables"](#processing-html-tables) shows howto generate a workbook from HTML tables in a page in "Headless WebKit".
</details>

The [included demos](demos/) cover mobile apps and other special deployments.
### Writing Examples
- <http://sheetjs.com/demos/table.html> exporting an HTML table- <http://sheetjs.com/demos/writexlsx.html> generates a simple file### Streaming Write
The streaming write functions are available in the `XLSX.stream` object. Theytake the same arguments as the normal write functions but return a ReadableStream. They are only exposed in NodeJS.
- `XLSX.stream.to_csv` is the streaming version of `XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv`.- `XLSX.stream.to_html` is the streaming version of `XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html`.- `XLSX.stream.to_json` is the streaming version of `XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json`.<details> <summary><b>nodejs convert to CSV and write file</b> (click to show)</summary>```jsvar output_file_name = "out.csv";var stream = XLSX.stream.to_csv(worksheet);stream.pipe(fs.createWriteStream(output_file_name));```
</details><details> <summary><b>nodejs write JSON stream to screen</b> (click to show)</summary>```js/* to_json returns an object-mode stream */var stream = XLSX.stream.to_json(worksheet, {raw:true});
/* the following stream converts JS objects to text via JSON.stringify */var conv = new Transform({writableObjectMode:true});conv._transform = function(obj, e, cb){ cb(null, JSON.stringify(obj) + "\n"); };
stream.pipe(conv); conv.pipe(process.stdout);```
</details><https://github.com/sheetjs/sheetaki> pipes write streams to nodejs response.### Generating JSON and JS Data
JSON and JS data tend to represent single worksheets. The utility functions inthis section work with single worksheets.
The ["Common Spreadsheet Format"](#common-spreadsheet-format) section describesthe object structure in more detail. `workbook.SheetNames` is an ordered listof the worksheet names. `workbook.Sheets` is an object whose keys are sheetnames and whose values are worksheet objects.
The "first worksheet" is stored at `workbook.Sheets[workbook.SheetNames[0]]`.
**API**
_Create an array of JS objects from a worksheet_
```jsvar jsa = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(worksheet, opts);```
_Create an array of arrays of JS values from a worksheet_
```jsvar aoa = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(worksheet, {...opts, header: 1});```
The `sheet_to_json` utility function walks a workbook in row-major order,generating an array of objects. The second `opts` argument controls a number ofexport decisions including the type of values (JS values or formatted text). The["JSON"](#json) section describes the argument in more detail.
By default, `sheet_to_json` scans the first row and uses the values as headers.With the `header: 1` option, the function exports an array of arrays of values.
**Examples**
[`x-spreadsheet`](https://github.com/myliang/x-spreadsheet) is an interactivedata grid for previewing and modifying structured data in the web browser. The[`xspreadsheet` demo](/demos/xspreadsheet) includes a sample script with the`stox` function for converting from a workbook to x-spreadsheet data object.<https://oss.sheetjs.com/sheetjs/x-spreadsheet> is a live demo.<details> <summary><b>Previewing data in a React data grid</b> (click to show)</summary>[`react-data-grid`](https://npm.im/react-data-grid) is a data grid tailored forreact. It expects two properties: `rows` of data objects and `columns` whichdescribe the columns. For the purposes of massaging the data to fit the reactdata grid API it is easiest to start from an array of arrays.
This demo starts by fetching a remote file and using `XLSX.read` to extract:
```jsimport { useEffect, useState } from "react";import DataGrid from "react-data-grid";import { read, utils } from "xlsx";
const url = "https://oss.sheetjs.com/test_files/RkNumber.xls";
export default function App() { const [columns, setColumns] = useState([]); const [rows, setRows] = useState([]); useEffect(() => {(async () => { const wb = read(await (await fetch(url)).arrayBuffer(), { WTF: 1 }); /* use sheet_to_json with header: 1 to generate an array of arrays */ const data = utils.sheet_to_json(wb.Sheets[wb.SheetNames[0]], { header: 1 }); /* see react-data-grid docs to understand the shape of the expected data */ setColumns(data[0].map((r) => ({ key: r, name: r }))); setRows(data.slice(1).map((r) => r.reduce((acc, x, i) => { acc[data[0][i]] = x; return acc; }, {}))); })(); }); return <DataGrid columns={columns} rows={rows} />;}```
</details><details> <summary><b>Populating a database (SQL or no-SQL)</b> (click to show)</summary>The [`database` demo](/demos/database/) includes examples of working withdatabases and query results.
</details><details> <summary><b>Numerical Computations with TensorFlow.js</b> (click to show)</summary>[`@tensorflow/tfjs`](@tensorflow/tfjs) and other libraries expect data in simplearrays, well-suited for worksheets where each column is a data vector. That isthe transpose of how most people use spreadsheets, where each row is a vector.
A single `Array#map` can pull individual named rows from `sheet_to_json` export:
```jsconst XLSX = require("xlsx");const tf = require('@tensorflow/tfjs');
const key = "age"; // this is the field we want to pullconst ages = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(worksheet).map(r => r[key]);const tf_data = tf.tensor1d(ages);```
All fields can be processed at once using a transpose of the 2D tensor generatedwith the `sheet_to_json` export with `header: 1`. The first row, if it containsheader labels, should be removed with a slice:
```jsconst XLSX = require("xlsx");const tf = require('@tensorflow/tfjs');
/* array of arrays of the data starting on the second row */const aoa = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(worksheet, {header: 1}).slice(1);/* dataset in the "correct orientation" */const tf_dataset = tf.tensor2d(aoa).transpose();/* pull out each dataset with a slice */const tf_field0 = tf_dataset.slice([0,0], [1,tensor.shape[1]]).flatten();const tf_field1 = tf_dataset.slice([1,0], [1,tensor.shape[1]]).flatten();```
The [`array` demo](demos/array/) shows a complete example.
</details>
### Generating HTML Tables
**API**
_Generate HTML Table from Worksheet_
```jsvar html = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(worksheet);```
The `sheet_to_html` utility function generates HTML code based on the worksheetdata. Each cell in the worksheet is mapped to a `<TD>` element. Merged cellsin the worksheet are serialized by setting `colspan` and `rowspan` attributes.
**Examples**
The `sheet_to_html` utility function generates HTML code that can be added toany DOM element by setting the `innerHTML`:
```jsvar container = document.getElementById("tavolo");container.innerHTML = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(worksheet);```
Combining with `fetch`, constructing a site from a workbook is straightforward:
<details> <summary><b>Vanilla JS + HTML fetch workbook and generate table previews</b> (click to show)</summary>```html<body> <style>TABLE { border-collapse: collapse; } TD { border: 1px solid; }</style> <div id="tavolo"></div> <script src="https://unpkg.com/xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript">(async() => { /* fetch and parse workbook -- see the fetch example for details */ const workbook = XLSX.read(await (await fetch("sheetjs.xlsx")).arrayBuffer()); let output = []; /* loop through the worksheet names in order */ workbook.SheetNames.forEach(name => { /* generate HTML from the corresponding worksheets */ const worksheet = workbook.Sheets[name]; const html = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(worksheet); /* add a header with the title name followed by the table */ output.push(`<H3>${name}</H3>${html}`); }); /* write to the DOM at the end */ tavolo.innerHTML = output.join("\n");})(); </script></body>```
</details><details> <summary><b>React fetch workbook and generate HTML table previews</b> (click to show)</summary>It is generally recommended to use a React-friendly workflow, but it is possibleto generate HTML and use it in React with `dangerouslySetInnerHTML`:
```jsxfunction Tabeller(props) { /* the workbook object is the state */ const [workbook, setWorkbook] = React.useState(XLSX.utils.book_new()); /* fetch and update the workbook with an effect */ React.useEffect(() => { (async() => { /* fetch and parse workbook -- see the fetch example for details */ const wb = XLSX.read(await (await fetch("sheetjs.xlsx")).arrayBuffer()); setWorkbook(wb); })(); }); return workbook.SheetNames.map(name => (<> <h3>name</h3> <div dangerouslySetInnerHTML={{ /* this __html mantra is needed to set the inner HTML */ __html: XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(workbook.Sheets[name]) }} /> </>));}```
The [`react` demo](demos/react) includes more React examples.
</details><details> <summary><b>VueJS fetch workbook and generate HTML table previews</b> (click to show)</summary>It is generally recommended to use a VueJS-friendly workflow, but it is possibleto generate HTML and use it in VueJS with the `v-html` directive:
```jsximport { read, utils } from 'xlsx';import { reactive } from 'vue';
const S5SComponent = { mounted() { (async() => { /* fetch and parse workbook -- see the fetch example for details */ const workbook = read(await (await fetch("sheetjs.xlsx")).arrayBuffer()); /* loop through the worksheet names in order */ workbook.SheetNames.forEach(name => { /* generate HTML from the corresponding worksheets */ const html = utils.sheet_to_html(workbook.Sheets[name]); /* add to state */ this.wb.wb.push({ name, html }); }); })(); }, /* this state mantra is required for array updates to work */ setup() { return { wb: reactive({ wb: [] }) }; }, template: ` <div v-for="ws in wb.wb" :key="ws.name"> <h3>{{ ws.name }}</h3> <div v-html="ws.html"></div> </div>`};```
The [`vuejs` demo](demos/vue) includes more React examples.
</details>### Generating Single-Worksheet Snapshots
The `sheet_to_*` functions accept a worksheet object.
**API**
_Generate a CSV from a single worksheet_
```jsvar csv = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(worksheet, opts);```
This snapshot is designed to replicate the "CSV UTF8 (`.csv`)" output type.["Delimiter-Separated Output"](#delimiter-separated-output) describes thefunction and the optional `opts` argument in more detail.
_Generate "Text" from a single worksheet_
```jsvar txt = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_txt(worksheet, opts);```
This snapshot is designed to replicate the "UTF16 Text (`.txt`)" output type.["Delimiter-Separated Output"](#delimiter-separated-output) describes thefunction and the optional `opts` argument in more detail.
_Generate a list of formulae from a single worksheet_
```jsvar fmla = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae(worksheet);```
This snapshot generates an array of entries representing the embedded formulae.Array formulae are rendered in the form `range=formula` while plain cells arerendered in the form `cell=formula or value`. String literals are prefixed withan apostrophe `'`, consistent with Excel's formula bar display.
["Formulae Output"](#formulae-output) describes the function in more detail.
## Interface
`XLSX` is the exposed variable in the browser and the exported node variable
`XLSX.version` is the version of the library (added by the build script).
`XLSX.SSF` is an embedded version of the [format library](https://git.io/ssf).
### Parsing functions
`XLSX.read(data, read_opts)` attempts to parse `data`.
`XLSX.readFile(filename, read_opts)` attempts to read `filename` and parse.
Parse options are described in the [Parsing Options](#parsing-options) section.
### Writing functions
`XLSX.write(wb, write_opts)` attempts to write the workbook `wb`
`XLSX.writeFile(wb, filename, write_opts)` attempts to write `wb` to `filename`.In browser-based environments, it will attempt to force a client-side download.
`XLSX.writeFileAsync(wb, filename, o, cb)` attempts to write `wb` to `filename`.If `o` is omitted, the writer will use the third argument as the callback.
`XLSX.stream` contains a set of streaming write functions.
Write options are described in the [Writing Options](#writing-options) section.
### Utilities
Utilities are available in the `XLSX.utils` object and are described in the[Utility Functions](#utility-functions) section:
**Constructing:**
- `book_new` creates an empty workbook- `book_append_sheet` adds a worksheet to a workbook**Importing:**
- `aoa_to_sheet` converts an array of arrays of JS data to a worksheet.- `json_to_sheet` converts an array of JS objects to a worksheet.- `table_to_sheet` converts a DOM TABLE element to a worksheet.- `sheet_add_aoa` adds an array of arrays of JS data to an existing worksheet.- `sheet_add_json` adds an array of JS objects to an existing worksheet.
**Exporting:**
- `sheet_to_json` converts a worksheet object to an array of JSON objects.- `sheet_to_csv` generates delimiter-separated-values output.- `sheet_to_txt` generates UTF16 formatted text.- `sheet_to_html` generates HTML output.- `sheet_to_formulae` generates a list of the formulae (with value fallbacks).
**Cell and cell address manipulation:**
- `format_cell` generates the text value for a cell (using number formats).- `encode_row / decode_row` converts between 0-indexed rows and 1-indexed rows.- `encode_col / decode_col` converts between 0-indexed columns and column names.- `encode_cell / decode_cell` converts cell addresses.- `encode_range / decode_range` converts cell ranges.## Common Spreadsheet Format
SheetJS conforms to the Common Spreadsheet Format (CSF):
### General Structures
Cell address objects are stored as `{c:C, r:R}` where `C` and `R` are 0-indexedcolumn and row numbers, respectively. For example, the cell address `B5` isrepresented by the object `{c:1, r:4}`.
Cell range objects are stored as `{s:S, e:E}` where `S` is the first cell and`E` is the last cell in the range. The ranges are inclusive. For example, therange `A3:B7` is represented by the object `{s:{c:0, r:2}, e:{c:1, r:6}}`.Utility functions perform a row-major order walk traversal of a sheet range:
```jsfor(var R = range.s.r; R <= range.e.r; ++R) { for(var C = range.s.c; C <= range.e.c; ++C) { var cell_address = {c:C, r:R}; /* if an A1-style address is needed, encode the address */ var cell_ref = XLSX.utils.encode_cell(cell_address); }}```
### Cell Object
Cell objects are plain JS objects with keys and values following the convention:
| Key | Description || --- | ---------------------------------------------------------------------- || `v` | raw value (see Data Types section for more info) || `w` | formatted text (if applicable) || `t` | type: `b` Boolean, `e` Error, `n` Number, `d` Date, `s` Text, `z` Stub || `f` | cell formula encoded as an A1-style string (if applicable) || `F` | range of enclosing array if formula is array formula (if applicable) || `D` | if true, array formula is dynamic (if applicable) || `r` | rich text encoding (if applicable) || `h` | HTML rendering of the rich text (if applicable) || `c` | comments associated with the cell || `z` | number format string associated with the cell (if requested) || `l` | cell hyperlink object (`.Target` holds link, `.Tooltip` is tooltip) || `s` | the style/theme of the cell (if applicable) |
Built-in export utilities (such as the CSV exporter) will use the `w` text if itis available. To change a value, be sure to delete `cell.w` (or set it to`undefined`) before attempting to export. The utilities will regenerate the `w`text from the number format (`cell.z`) and the raw value if possible.
The actual array formula is stored in the `f` field of the first cell in thearray range. Other cells in the range will omit the `f` field.
#### Data Types
The raw value is stored in the `v` value property, interpreted based on the `t`type property. This separation allows for representation of numbers as well asnumeric text. There are 6 valid cell types:
| Type | Description || :--: | :-------------------------------------------------------------------- || `b` | Boolean: value interpreted as JS `boolean` || `e` | Error: value is a numeric code and `w` property stores common name ** || `n` | Number: value is a JS `number` ** || `d` | Date: value is a JS `Date` object or string to be parsed as Date ** || `s` | Text: value interpreted as JS `string` and written as text ** || `z` | Stub: blank stub cell that is ignored by data processing utilities ** |
<details> <summary><b>Error values and interpretation</b> (click to show)</summary>| Value | Error Meaning || -----: | :-------------- || `0x00` | `#NULL!` || `0x07` | `#DIV/0!` || `0x0F` | `#VALUE!` || `0x17` | `#REF!` || `0x1D` | `#NAME?` || `0x24` | `#NUM!` || `0x2A` | `#N/A` || `0x2B` | `#GETTING_DATA` |
</details>Type `n` is the Number type. This includes all forms of data that Excel storesas numbers, such as dates/times and Boolean fields. Excel exclusively uses datathat can be fit in an IEEE754 floating point number, just like JS Number, so the`v` field holds the raw number. The `w` field holds formatted text. Dates arestored as numbers by default and converted with `XLSX.SSF.parse_date_code`.
Type `d` is the Date type, generated only when the option `cellDates` is passed.Since JSON does not have a natural Date type, parsers are generally expected tostore ISO 8601 Date strings like you would get from `date.toISOString()`. Onthe other hand, writers and exporters should be able to handle date strings andJS Date objects. Note that Excel disregards timezone modifiers and treats alldates in the local timezone. The library does not correct for this error.
Type `s` is the String type. Values are explicitly stored as text. Excel willinterpret these cells as "number stored as text". Generated Excel filesautomatically suppress that class of error, but other formats may elicit errors.
Type `z` represents blank stub cells. They are generated in cases where cellshave no assigned value but hold comments or other metadata. They are ignored bythe core library data processing utility functions. By default these cells arenot generated; the parser `sheetStubs` option must be set to `true`.

#### Dates
<details> <summary><b>Excel Date Code details</b> (click to show)</summary>By default, Excel stores dates as numbers with a format code that specifies dateprocessing. For example, the date `19-Feb-17` is stored as the number `42785`with a number format of `d-mmm-yy`. The `SSF` module understands number formatsand performs the appropriate conversion.
XLSX also supports a special date type `d` where the data is an ISO 8601 datestring. The formatter converts the date back to a number.
The default behavior for all parsers is to generate number cells. Setting`cellDates` to true will force the generators to store dates.
</details><details> <summary><b>Time Zones and Dates</b> (click to show)</summary>Excel has no native concept of universal time. All times are specified in thelocal time zone. Excel limitations prevent specifying true absolute dates.
Following Excel, this library treats all dates as relative to local time zone.
</details><details> <summary><b>Epochs: 1900 and 1904</b> (click to show)</summary>Excel supports two epochs (January 1 1900 and January 1 1904).The workbook's epoch can be determined by examining the workbook's`wb.Workbook.WBProps.date1904` property:
```js!!(((wb.Workbook||{}).WBProps||{}).date1904)```
</details>### Sheet Objects
Each key that does not start with `!` maps to a cell (using `A-1` notation)
`sheet[address]` returns the cell object for the specified address.
**Special sheet keys (accessible as `sheet[key]`, each starting with `!`):**
- `sheet['!ref']`: A-1 based range representing the sheet range. Functions that work with sheets should use this parameter to determine the range. Cells that are assigned outside of the range are not processed. In particular, when writing a sheet by hand, cells outside of the range are not included Functions that handle sheets should test for the presence of `!ref` field. If the `!ref` is omitted or is not a valid range, functions are free to treat the sheet as empty or attempt to guess the range. The standard utilities that ship with this library treat sheets as empty (for example, the CSV output is empty string). When reading a worksheet with the `sheetRows` property set, the ref parameter will use the restricted range. The original range is set at `ws['!fullref']`- `sheet['!margins']`: Object representing the page margins. The default values follow Excel's "normal" preset. Excel also has a "wide" and a "narrow" preset but they are stored as raw measurements. The main properties are listed below:<details> <summary><b>Page margin details</b> (click to show)</summary>| key | description | "normal" | "wide" | "narrow" ||----------|------------------------|:---------|:-------|:-------- || `left` | left margin (inches) | `0.7` | `1.0` | `0.25` || `right` | right margin (inches) | `0.7` | `1.0` | `0.25` || `top` | top margin (inches) | `0.75` | `1.0` | `0.75` || `bottom` | bottom margin (inches) | `0.75` | `1.0` | `0.75` || `header` | header margin (inches) | `0.3` | `0.5` | `0.3` || `footer` | footer margin (inches) | `0.3` | `0.5` | `0.3` |
```js/* Set worksheet sheet to "normal" */ws["!margins"]={left:0.7, right:0.7, top:0.75,bottom:0.75,header:0.3,footer:0.3}/* Set worksheet sheet to "wide" */ws["!margins"]={left:1.0, right:1.0, top:1.0, bottom:1.0, header:0.5,footer:0.5}/* Set worksheet sheet to "narrow" */ws["!margins"]={left:0.25,right:0.25,top:0.75,bottom:0.75,header:0.3,footer:0.3}```</details>#### Worksheet Object
In addition to the base sheet keys, worksheets also add:
- `ws['!cols']`: array of column properties objects. Column widths are actually stored in files in a normalized manner, measured in terms of the "Maximum Digit Width" (the largest width of the rendered digits 0-9, in pixels). When parsed, the column objects store the pixel width in the `wpx` field, character width in the `wch` field, and the maximum digit width in the `MDW` field.- `ws['!rows']`: array of row properties objects as explained later in the docs. Each row object encodes properties including row height and visibility.- `ws['!merges']`: array of range objects corresponding to the merged cells in the worksheet. Plain text formats do not support merge cells. CSV export will write all cells in the merge range if they exist, so be sure that only the first cell (upper-left) in the range is set.- `ws['!outline']`: configure how outlines should behave. Options default to the default settings in Excel 2019:| key | Excel feature | default ||:----------|:----------------------------------------------|:--------|| `above` | Uncheck "Summary rows below detail" | `false` || `left` | Uncheck "Summary rows to the right of detail" | `false` |
- `ws['!protect']`: object of write sheet protection properties. The `password` key specifies the password for formats that support password-protected sheets (XLSX/XLSB/XLS). The writer uses the XOR obfuscation method. The following keys control the sheet protection -- set to `false` to enable a feature when sheet is locked or set to `true` to disable a feature:<details> <summary><b>Worksheet Protection Details</b> (click to show)</summary>| key | feature (true=disabled / false=enabled) | default ||:----------------------|:----------------------------------------|:-----------|| `selectLockedCells` | Select locked cells | enabled || `selectUnlockedCells` | Select unlocked cells | enabled || `formatCells` | Format cells | disabled || `formatColumns` | Format columns | disabled || `formatRows` | Format rows | disabled || `insertColumns` | Insert columns | disabled || `insertRows` | Insert rows | disabled || `insertHyperlinks` | Insert hyperlinks | disabled || `deleteColumns` | Delete columns | disabled || `deleteRows` | Delete rows | disabled || `sort` | Sort | disabled || `autoFilter` | Filter | disabled || `pivotTables` | Use PivotTable reports | disabled || `objects` | Edit objects | enabled || `scenarios` | Edit scenarios | enabled |</details>- `ws['!autofilter']`: AutoFilter object following the schema:```typescripttype AutoFilter = { ref:string; // A-1 based range representing the AutoFilter table range}```
#### Chartsheet Object
Chartsheets are represented as standard sheets. They are distinguished with the`!type` property set to `"chart"`.
The underlying data and `!ref` refer to the cached data in the chartsheet. Thefirst row of the chartsheet is the underlying header.
#### Macrosheet Object
Macrosheets are represented as standard sheets. They are distinguished with the`!type` property set to `"macro"`.
#### Dialogsheet Object
Dialogsheets are represented as standard sheets. They are distinguished with the`!type` property set to `"dialog"`.
### Workbook Object
`workbook.SheetNames` is an ordered list of the sheets in the workbook
`wb.Sheets[sheetname]` returns an object representing the worksheet.
`wb.Props` is an object storing the standard properties. `wb.Custprops` storescustom properties. Since the XLS standard properties deviate from the XLSXstandard, XLS parsing stores core properties in both places.
`wb.Workbook` stores [workbook-level attributes](#workbook-level-attributes).
#### Workbook File Properties
The various file formats use different internal names for file properties. Theworkbook `Props` object normalizes the names:
<details> <summary><b>File Properties</b> (click to show)</summary>| JS Name | Excel Description ||:--------------|:-------------------------------|| `Title` | Summary tab "Title" || `Subject` | Summary tab "Subject" || `Author` | Summary tab "Author" || `Manager` | Summary tab "Manager" || `Company` | Summary tab "Company" || `Category` | Summary tab "Category" || `Keywords` | Summary tab "Keywords" || `Comments` | Summary tab "Comments" || `LastAuthor` | Statistics tab "Last saved by" || `CreatedDate` | Statistics tab "Created" |
</details>For example, to set the workbook title property:
```jsif(!wb.Props) wb.Props = {};wb.Props.Title = "Insert Title Here";```
Custom properties are added in the workbook `Custprops` object:
```jsif(!wb.Custprops) wb.Custprops = {};wb.Custprops["Custom Property"] = "Custom Value";```
Writers will process the `Props` key of the options object:
```js/* force the Author to be "SheetJS" */XLSX.write(wb, {Props:{Author:"SheetJS"}});```
### Workbook-Level Attributes
`wb.Workbook` stores workbook-level attributes.
#### Defined Names
`wb.Workbook.Names` is an array of defined name objects which have the keys:
<details> <summary><b>Defined Name Properties</b> (click to show)</summary>| Key | Description ||:----------|:-----------------------------------------------------------------|| `Sheet` | Name scope. Sheet Index (0 = first sheet) or `null` (Workbook) || `Name` | Case-sensitive name. Standard rules apply ** || `Ref` | A1-style Reference (`"Sheet1!$A$1:$D$20"`) || `Comment` | Comment (only applicable for XLS/XLSX/XLSB) |
</details>Excel allows two sheet-scoped defined names to share the same name. However, asheet-scoped name cannot collide with a workbook-scope name. Workbook writersmay not enforce this constraint.
#### Workbook Views
`wb.Workbook.Views` is an array of workbook view objects which have the keys:
| Key | Description ||:----------------|:----------------------------------------------------|| `RTL` | If true, display right-to-left |
#### Miscellaneous Workbook Properties
`wb.Workbook.WBProps` holds other workbook properties:
| Key | Description ||:----------------|:----------------------------------------------------|| `CodeName` | [VBA Project Workbook Code Name](#vba-and-macros) || `date1904` | epoch: 0/false for 1900 system, 1/true for 1904 || `filterPrivacy` | Warn or strip personally identifying info on save |
### Document Features
Even for basic features like date storage, the official Excel formats store thesame content in different ways. The parsers are expected to convert from theunderlying file format representation to the Common Spreadsheet Format. Writersare expected to convert from CSF back to the underlying file format.
#### Formulae
The A1-style formula string is stored in the `f` field. Even though differentfile formats store the formulae in different ways, the formats are translated.Even though some formats store formulae with a leading equal sign, CSF formulaedo not start with `=`.
<details> <summary><b>Formulae File Format Support</b> (click to show)</summary>| Storage Representation | Formats | Read | Write ||:-----------------------|:-------------------------|:-----:|:-----:|| A1-style strings | XLSX | ✔ | ✔ || RC-style strings | XLML and plain text | ✔ | ✔ || BIFF Parsed formulae | XLSB and all XLS formats | ✔ | || OpenFormula formulae | ODS/FODS/UOS | ✔ | ✔ || Lotus Parsed formulae | All Lotus WK_ formats | ✔ | |
Since Excel prohibits named cells from colliding with names of A1 or RC stylecell references, a (not-so-simple) regex conversion is possible. BIFF Parsedformulae and Lotus Parsed formulae have to be explicitly unwound. OpenFormulaformulae can be converted with regular expressions.
Shared formulae are decompressed and each cell has the formula corresponding toits cell. Writers generally do not attempt to generate shared formulae.</details>**Single-Cell Formulae**
For simple formulae, the `f` key of the desired cell can be set to the actualformula text. This worksheet represents `A1=1`, `A2=2`, and `A3=A1+A2`:
```jsvar worksheet = { "!ref": "A1:A3", A1: { t:'n', v:1 }, A2: { t:'n', v:2 }, A3: { t:'n', v:3, f:'A1+A2' }};```
Utilities like `aoa_to_sheet` will accept cell objects in lieu of values:
```jsvar worksheet = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([ [ 1 ], // A1 [ 2 ], // A2 [ {t: "n", v: 3, f: "A1+A2"} ] // A3]);```
Cells with formula entries but no value will be serialized in a way that Exceland other spreadsheet tools will recognize. This library will not automaticallycompute formula results! For example, the following worksheet will include the`BESSELJ` function but the result will not be available in JavaScript:
```jsvar worksheet = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([ [ 3.14159, 2 ], // Row "1" [ { t:'n', f:'BESSELJ(A1,B1)' } ] // Row "2" will be calculated on file open}```
If the actual results are needed in JS, [SheetJS Pro](https://sheetjs.com/pro)offers a formula calculator component for evaluating expressions, updatingvalues and dependent cells, and refreshing entire workbooks.

**Array Formulae**
_Assign an array formula_
```jsXLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, range, formula);```
Array formulae are stored in the top-left cell of the array block. All cellsof an array formula have a `F` field corresponding to the range. A single-cellformula can be distinguished from a plain formula by the presence of `F` field.
For example, setting the cell `C1` to the array formula `{=SUM(A1:A3*B1:B3)}`:
```js// API functionXLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, "C1", "SUM(A1:A3*B1:B3)");
// ... OR raw operationsworksheet['C1'] = { t:'n', f: "SUM(A1:A3*B1:B3)", F:"C1:C1" };```
For a multi-cell array formula, every cell has the same array range but only thefirst cell specifies the formula. Consider `D1:D3=A1:A3*B1:B3`:
```js// API functionXLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, "D1:D3", "A1:A3*B1:B3");
// ... OR raw operationsworksheet['D1'] = { t:'n', F:"D1:D3", f:"A1:A3*B1:B3" };worksheet['D2'] = { t:'n', F:"D1:D3" };worksheet['D3'] = { t:'n', F:"D1:D3" };```
Utilities and writers are expected to check for the presence of a `F` field andignore any possible formula element `f` in cells other than the starting cell.They are not expected to perform validation of the formulae!

**Dynamic Array Formulae**
_Assign a dynamic array formula_
```jsXLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, range, formula, true);```
Released in 2020, Dynamic Array Formulae are supported in the XLSX/XLSM and XLSBfile formats. They are represented like normal array formulae but have specialcell metadata indicating that the formula should be allowed to adjust the range.
An array formula can be marked as dynamic by setting the cell's `D` property totrue. The `F` range is expected but can be the set to the current cell:
```js// API functionXLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, "C1", "_xlfn.UNIQUE(A1:A3)", 1);
// ... OR raw operationsworksheet['C1'] = { t: "s", f: "_xlfn.UNIQUE(A1:A3)", F:"C1", D: 1 }; // dynamic```
**Localization with Function Names**
SheetJS operates at the file level. Excel stores formula expressions using theEnglish (United States) function names. For non-English users, Excel uses alocalized set of function names.
For example, when the computer language and region is set to French (France),Excel interprets `=SOMME(A1:C3)` as if `SOMME` is the `SUM` function. However,in the actual file, Excel stores `SUM(A1:C3)`.
**Prefixed "Future Functions"**
Functions introduced in newer versions of Excel are prefixed with `_xlfn.` whenstored in files. When writing formula expressions using these functions, theprefix is required for maximal compatibility:
```js// Broadest compatibilityXLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, "C1", "_xlfn.UNIQUE(A1:A3)", 1);
// Can cause errors in spreadsheet softwareXLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, "C1", "UNIQUE(A1:A3)", 1);```
When reading a file, the `xlfn` option preserves the prefixes.
<details> <summary><b> Functions requiring `_xlfn.` prefix</b> (click to show)</summary>This list is growing with each Excel release.
```ACOTACOTHAGGREGATEARABICBASEBETA.DISTBETA.INVBINOM.DISTBINOM.DIST.RANGEBINOM.INVBITANDBITLSHIFTBITORBITRSHIFTBITXORBYCOLBYROWCEILING.MATHCEILING.PRECISECHISQ.DISTCHISQ.DIST.RTCHISQ.INVCHISQ.INV.RTCHISQ.TESTCOMBINACONFIDENCE.NORMCONFIDENCE.TCOTCOTHCOVARIANCE.PCOVARIANCE.SCSCCSCHDAYSDECIMALERF.PRECISEERFC.PRECISEEXPON.DISTF.DISTF.DIST.RTF.INVF.INV.RTF.TESTFIELDVALUEFILTERXMLFLOOR.MATHFLOOR.PRECISEFORMULATEXTGAMMAGAMMA.DISTGAMMA.INVGAMMALN.PRECISEGAUSSHYPGEOM.DISTIFNAIMCOSHIMCOTIMCSCIMCSCHIMSECIMSECHIMSINHIMTANISFORMULAISOMITTEDISOWEEKNUMLAMBDALETLOGNORM.DISTLOGNORM.INVMAKEARRAYMAPMODE.MULTMODE.SNGLMUNITNEGBINOM.DISTNORM.DISTNORM.INVNORM.S.DISTNORM.S.INVNUMBERVALUEPDURATIONPERCENTILE.EXCPERCENTILE.INCPERCENTRANK.EXCPERCENTRANK.INCPERMUTATIONAPHIPOISSON.DISTQUARTILE.EXCQUARTILE.INCQUERYSTRINGRANDARRAYRANK.AVGRANK.EQREDUCERRISCANSECSECHSEQUENCESHEETSHEETSSKEW.PSORTBYSTDEV.PSTDEV.ST.DISTT.DIST.2TT.DIST.RTT.INVT.INV.2TT.TESTUNICHARUNICODEUNIQUEVAR.PVAR.SWEBSERVICEWEIBULL.DISTXLOOKUPXORZ.TEST```
</details>#### Row and Column Properties
<details> <summary><b>Format Support</b> (click to show)</summary>**Row Properties**: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML, SYLK, DOM, ODS
**Column Properties**: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML, SYLK, DOM
</details>
Row and Column properties are not extracted by default when reading from a fileand are not persisted by default when writing to a file. The option`cellStyles: true` must be passed to the relevant read or write function.
_Column Properties_
The `!cols` array in each worksheet, if present, is a collection of `ColInfo`objects which have the following properties:
```typescripttype ColInfo = { /* visibility */ hidden?: boolean; // if true, the column is hidden /* column width is specified in one of the following ways: */ wpx?: number; // width in screen pixels width?: number; // width in Excel's "Max Digit Width", width*256 is integral wch?: number; // width in characters /* other fields for preserving features from files */ level?: number; // 0-indexed outline / group level MDW?: number; // Excel's "Max Digit Width" unit, always integral};```
_Row Properties_
The `!rows` array in each worksheet, if present, is a collection of `RowInfo`objects which have the following properties:
```typescripttype RowInfo = { /* visibility */ hidden?: boolean; // if true, the row is hidden /* row height is specified in one of the following ways: */ hpx?: number; // height in screen pixels hpt?: number; // height in points level?: number; // 0-indexed outline / group level};```
_Outline / Group Levels Convention_
The Excel UI displays the base outline level as `1` and the max level as `8`.Following JS conventions, SheetJS uses 0-indexed outline levels wherein the baseoutline level is `0` and the max level is `7`.
<details> <summary><b>Why are there three width types?</b> (click to show)</summary>There are three different width types corresponding to the three different waysspreadsheets store column widths:
SYLK and other plain text formats use raw character count. Contemporaneous toolslike Visicalc and Multiplan were character based. Since the characters had thesame width, it sufficed to store a count. This tradition was continued into theBIFF formats.
SpreadsheetML (2003) tried to align with HTML by standardizing on screen pixelcount throughout the file. Column widths, row heights, and other measures usepixels. When the pixel and character counts do not align, Excel rounds values.
XLSX internally stores column widths in a nebulous "Max Digit Width" form. TheMax Digit Width is the width of the largest digit when rendered (generally the"0" character is the widest). The internal width must be an integer multiple ofthe the width divided by 256. ECMA-376 describes a formula for convertingbetween pixels and the internal width. This represents a hybrid approach.
Read functions attempt to populate all three properties. Write functions willtry to cycle specified values to the desired type. In order to avoid potentialconflicts, manipulation should delete the other properties first. For example,when changing the pixel width, delete the `wch` and `width` properties.</details><details> <summary><b>Implementation details</b> (click to show)</summary>_Row Heights_
Excel internally stores row heights in points. The default resolution is 72 DPIor 96 PPI, so the pixel and point size should agree. For different resolutionsthey may not agree, so the library separates the concepts.
Even though all of the information is made available, writers are expected tofollow the priority order:
1) use `hpx` pixel height if available2) use `hpt` point height if available
_Column Widths_
Given the constraints, it is possible to determine the MDW without actuallyinspecting the font! The parsers guess the pixel width by converting from widthto pixels and back, repeating for all possible MDW and selecting the MDW thatminimizes the error. XLML actually stores the pixel width, so the guess worksin the opposite direction.
Even though all of the information is made available, writers are expected tofollow the priority order:
1) use `width` field if available2) use `wpx` pixel width if available3) use `wch` character count if available
</details>#### Number Formats
The `cell.w` formatted text for each cell is produced from `cell.v` and `cell.z`format. If the format is not specified, the Excel `General` format is used.The format can either be specified as a string or as an index into the formattable. Parsers are expected to populate `workbook.SSF` with the number formattable. Writers are expected to serialize the table.
Custom tools should ensure that the local table has each used format stringsomewhere in the table. Excel convention mandates that the custom formats startat index 164. The following example creates a custom format from scratch:
<details> <summary><b>New worksheet with custom format</b> (click to show)</summary>```jsvar wb = { SheetNames: ["Sheet1"], Sheets: { Sheet1: { "!ref":"A1:C1", A1: { t:"n", v:10000 }, // <-- General format B1: { t:"n", v:10000, z: "0%" }, // <-- Builtin format C1: { t:"n", v:10000, z: "\"T\"\ #0.00" } // <-- Custom format } }}```</details>The rules are slightly different from how Excel displays custom number formats.In particular, literal characters must be wrapped in double quotes or precededby a backslash. For more info, see the Excel documentation article`Create or delete a custom number format` or ECMA-376 18.8.31 (Number Formats)

<details> <summary><b>Default Number Formats</b> (click to show)</summary>The default formats are listed in ECMA-376 18.8.30:
| ID | Format ||---:|:---------------------------|| 0 | `General` || 1 | `0` || 2 | `0.00` || 3 | `#,##0` || 4 | `#,##0.00` || 9 | `0%` || 10 | `0.00%` || 11 | `0.00E+00` || 12 | `# ?/?` || 13 | `# ??/??` || 14 | `m/d/yy` (see below) || 15 | `d-mmm-yy` || 16 | `d-mmm` || 17 | `mmm-yy` || 18 | `h:mm AM/PM` || 19 | `h:mm:ss AM/PM` || 20 | `h:mm` || 21 | `h:mm:ss` || 22 | `m/d/yy h:mm` || 37 | `#,##0 ;(#,##0)` || 38 | `#,##0 ;[Red](#,##0)` || 39 | `#,##0.00;(#,##0.00)` || 40 | `#,##0.00;[Red](#,##0.00)` || 45 | `mm:ss` || 46 | `[h]:mm:ss` || 47 | `mmss.0` || 48 | `##0.0E+0` || 49 | `@` |
</details>Format 14 (`m/d/yy`) is localized by Excel: even though the file specifies thatnumber format, it will be drawn differently based on system settings. It makessense when the producer and consumer of files are in the same locale, but thatis not always the case over the Internet. To get around this ambiguity, parsefunctions accept the `dateNF` option to override the interpretation of thatspecific format string.
#### Hyperlinks
<details> <summary><b>Format Support</b> (click to show)</summary>**Cell Hyperlinks**: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML, ODS
**Tooltips**: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML
</details>Hyperlinks are stored in the `l` key of cell objects. The `Target` field of thehyperlink object is the target of the link, including the URI fragment. Tooltipsare stored in the `Tooltip` field and are displayed when you move your mouseover the text.
For example, the following snippet creates a link from cell `A3` to<https://sheetjs.com> with the tip `"Find us @ SheetJS.com!"`:```jsws['A1'].l = { Target:"https://sheetjs.com", Tooltip:"Find us @ SheetJS.com!" };```
Note that Excel does not automatically style hyperlinks -- they will generallybe displayed as normal text.
_Remote Links_
HTTP / HTTPS links can be used directly:
```jsws['A2'].l = { Target:"https://docs.sheetjs.com/#hyperlinks" };ws['A3'].l = { Target:"http://localhost:7262/yes_localhost_works" };```
Excel also supports `mailto` email links with subject line:
```jsws['A4'].l = { Target:"mailto:ignored@dev.null" };ws['A5'].l = { Target:"mailto:ignored@dev.null?subject=Test Subject" };```
_Local Links_
Links to absolute paths should use the `file://` URI scheme:
```jsws['B1'].l = { Target:"file:///SheetJS/t.xlsx" }; /* Link to /SheetJS/t.xlsx */ws['B2'].l = { Target:"file:///c:/SheetJS.xlsx" }; /* Link to c:\SheetJS.xlsx */```
Links to relative paths can be specified without a scheme:
```jsws['B3'].l = { Target:"SheetJS.xlsb" }; /* Link to SheetJS.xlsb */ws['B4'].l = { Target:"../SheetJS.xlsm" }; /* Link to ../SheetJS.xlsm */```
Relative Paths have undefined behavior in the SpreadsheetML 2003 format. Excel2019 will treat a `..\` parent mark as two levels up.
_Internal Links_
Links where the target is a cell or range or defined name in the same workbook("Internal Links") are marked with a leading hash character:
```jsws['C1'].l = { Target:"#E2" }; /* Link to cell E2 */ws['C2'].l = { Target:"#Sheet2!E2" }; /* Link to cell E2 in sheet Sheet2 */ws['C3'].l = { Target:"#SomeDefinedName" }; /* Link to Defined Name */```
#### Cell Comments
Cell comments are objects stored in the `c` array of cell objects. The actualcontents of the comment are split into blocks based on the comment author. The`a` field of each comment object is the author of the comment and the `t` fieldis the plain text representation.
For example, the following snippet appends a cell comment into cell `A1`:
```jsif(!ws.A1.c) ws.A1.c = [];ws.A1.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"I'm a little comment, short and stout!"});```
Note: XLSB enforces a 54 character limit on the Author name. Names longer than54 characters may cause issues with other formats.
To mark a comment as normally hidden, set the `hidden` property:
```jsif(!ws.A1.c) ws.A1.c = [];ws.A1.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"This comment is visible"});
if(!ws.A2.c) ws.A2.c = [];ws.A2.c.hidden = true;ws.A2.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"This comment will be hidden"});```
#### Sheet Visibility
Excel enables hiding sheets in the lower tab bar. The sheet data is stored inthe file but the UI does not readily make it available. Standard hidden sheetsare revealed in the "Unhide" menu. Excel also has "very hidden" sheets whichcannot be revealed in the menu. It is only accessible in the VB Editor!
The visibility setting is stored in the `Hidden` property of sheet props array.
<details> <summary><b>More details</b> (click to show)</summary>| Value | Definition ||:-----:|:------------|| 0 | Visible || 1 | Hidden || 2 | Very Hidden |
With <https://rawgit.com/SheetJS/test_files/HEAD/sheet_visibility.xlsx>:
```js> wb.Workbook.Sheets.map(function(x) { return [x.name, x.Hidden] })[ [ 'Visible', 0 ], [ 'Hidden', 1 ], [ 'VeryHidden', 2 ] ]```
Non-Excel formats do not support the Very Hidden state. The best way to testif a sheet is visible is to check if the `Hidden` property is logical truth:
```js> wb.Workbook.Sheets.map(function(x) { return [x.name, !x.Hidden] })[ [ 'Visible', true ], [ 'Hidden', false ], [ 'VeryHidden', false ] ]```</details>#### VBA and Macros
VBA Macros are stored in a special data blob that is exposed in the `vbaraw`property of the workbook object when the `bookVBA` option is `true`. They aresupported in `XLSM`, `XLSB`, and `BIFF8 XLS` formats. The supported formatwriters automatically insert the data blobs if it is present in the workbook andassociate with the worksheet names.
<details> <summary><b>Custom Code Names</b> (click to show)</summary>
The workbook code name is stored in `wb.Workbook.WBProps.CodeName`. By default,Excel will write `ThisWorkbook` or a translated phrase like `DieseArbeitsmappe`.Worksheet and Chartsheet code names are in the worksheet properties object at`wb.Workbook.Sheets[i].CodeName`. Macrosheets and Dialogsheets are ignored.
The readers and writers preserve the code names, but they have to be manuallyset when adding a VBA blob to a different workbook.
</details><details> <summary><b>Macrosheets</b> (click to show)</summary>
Older versions of Excel also supported a non-VBA "macrosheet" sheet type thatstored automation commands. These are exposed in objects with the `!type`property set to `"macro"`.
</details><details> <summary><b>Detecting macros in workbooks</b> (click to show)</summary>
The `vbaraw` field will only be set if macros are present, so testing is simple:
```jsfunction wb_has_macro(wb/*:workbook*/)/*:boolean*/ { if(!!wb.vbaraw) return true; const sheets = wb.SheetNames.map((n) => wb.Sheets[n]); return sheets.some((ws) => !!ws && ws['!type']=='macro');}```
</details>## Parsing Options
The exported `read` and `readFile` functions accept an options argument:
| Option Name | Default | Description || :---------- | ------: | :--------------------------------------------------- ||`type` | | Input data encoding (see Input Type below) ||`raw` | false | If true, plain text parsing will not parse values ** ||`codepage` | | If specified, use code page when appropriate ** ||`cellFormula`| true | Save formulae to the .f field ||`cellHTML` | true | Parse rich text and save HTML to the `.h` field ||`cellNF` | false | Save number format string to the `.z` field ||`cellStyles` | false | Save style/theme info to the `.s` field ||`cellText` | true | Generated formatted text to the `.w` field ||`cellDates` | false | Store dates as type `d` (default is `n`) ||`dateNF` | | If specified, use the string for date code 14 ** ||`sheetStubs` | false | Create cell objects of type `z` for stub cells ||`sheetRows` | 0 | If >0, read the first `sheetRows` rows ** ||`bookDeps` | false | If true, parse calculation chains ||`bookFiles` | false | If true, add raw files to book object ** ||`bookProps` | false | If true, only parse enough to get book metadata ** ||`bookSheets` | false | If true, only parse enough to get the sheet names ||`bookVBA` | false | If true, copy VBA blob to `vbaraw` field ** ||`password` | "" | If defined and file is encrypted, use password ** ||`WTF` | false | If true, throw errors on unexpected file features ** ||`sheets` | | If specified, only parse specified sheets ** ||`PRN` | false | If true, allow parsing of PRN files ** ||`xlfn` | false | If true, preserve `_xlfn.` prefixes in formulae ** ||`FS` | | DSV Field Separator override |
- Even if `cellNF` is false, formatted text will be generated and saved to `.w`- In some cases, sheets may be parsed even if `bookSheets` is false.- Excel aggressively tries to interpret values from CSV and other plain text. This leads to surprising behavior! The `raw` option suppresses value parsing.- `bookSheets` and `bookProps` combine to give both sets of information- `Deps` will be an empty object if `bookDeps` is false- `bookFiles` behavior depends on file type: * `keys` array (paths in the ZIP) for ZIP-based formats * `files` hash (mapping paths to objects representing the files) for ZIP * `cfb` object for formats using CFB containers- `sheetRows-1` rows will be generated when looking at the JSON object output (since the header row is counted as a row when parsing the data)- By default all worksheets are parsed. `sheets` restricts based on input type: * number: zero-based index of worksheet to parse (`0` is first worksheet) * string: name of worksheet to parse (case insensitive) * array of numbers and strings to select multiple worksheets.- `bookVBA` merely exposes the raw VBA CFB object. It does not parse the data. XLSM and XLSB store the VBA CFB object in `xl/vbaProject.bin`. BIFF8 XLS mixes the VBA entries alongside the core Workbook entry, so the library generates a new XLSB-compatible blob from the XLS CFB container.- `codepage` is applied to BIFF2 - BIFF5 files without `CodePage` records and to CSV files without BOM in `type:"binary"`. BIFF8 XLS always defaults to 1200.- `PRN` affects parsing of text files without a common delimiter character.- Currently only XOR encryption is supported. Unsupported error will be thrown for files employing other encryption methods.- Newer Excel functions are serialized with the `_xlfn.` prefix, hidden from the user. SheetJS will strip `_xlfn.` normally. The `xlfn` option preserves them.- WTF is mainly for development. By default, the parser will suppress read errors on single worksheets, allowing you to read from the worksheets that do parse properly. Setting `WTF:true` forces those errors to be thrown.### Input Type
Strings can be interpreted in multiple ways. The `type` parameter for `read`tells the library how to parse the data argument:
| `type` | expected input ||------------|-----------------------------------------------------------------|| `"base64"` | string: Base64 encoding of the file || `"binary"` | string: binary string (byte `n` is `data.charCodeAt(n)`) || `"string"` | string: JS string (characters interpreted as UTF8) || `"buffer"` | nodejs Buffer || `"array"` | array: array of 8-bit unsigned int (byte `n` is `data[n]`) || `"file"` | string: path of file that will be read (nodejs only) |
### Guessing File Type
<details> <summary><b>Implementation Details</b> (click to show)</summary>Excel and other spreadsheet tools read the first few bytes and apply otherheuristics to determine a file type. This enables file type punning: renamingfiles with the `.xls` extension will tell your computer to use Excel to open thefile but Excel will know how to handle it. This library applies similar logic:
| Byte 0 | Raw File Type | Spreadsheet Types ||:-------|:--------------|:----------------------------------------------------|| `0xD0` | CFB Container | BIFF 5/8 or protected XLSX/XLSB or WQ3/QPW or XLR || `0x09` | BIFF Stream | BIFF 2/3/4/5 || `0x3C` | XML/HTML | SpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text || `0x50` | ZIP Archive | XLSB or XLSX/M or ODS or UOS2 or NUMBERS or text || `0x49` | Plain Text | SYLK or plain text || `0x54` | Plain Text | DIF or plain text || `0xEF` | UTF8 Encoded | SpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text || `0xFF` | UTF16 Encoded | SpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text || `0x00` | Record Stream | Lotus WK\* or Quattro Pro or plain text || `0x7B` | Plain text | RTF or plain text || `0x0A` | Plain text | SpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text || `0x0D` | Plain text | SpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text || `0x20` | Plain text | SpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text |
DBF files are detected based on the first byte as well as the third and fourthbytes (corresponding to month and day of the file date)
Works for Windows files are detected based on the BOF record with type `0xFF`
Plain text format guessing follows the priority order:
| Format | Test ||:-------|:--------------------------------------------------------------------|| XML | `<?xml` appears in the first 1024 characters || HTML | starts with `<` and HTML tags appear in the first 1024 characters * || XML | starts with `<` and the first tag is valid || RTF | starts with `{\rt` || DSV | starts with `/sep=.$/`, separator is the specified character || DSV | more unquoted `|` chars than `;` `\t` `,` in the first 1024 || DSV | more unquoted `;` chars than `\t` or `,` in the first 1024 || TSV | more unquoted `\t` chars than `,` chars in the first 1024 || CSV | one of the first 1024 characters is a comma `","` || ETH | starts with `socialcalc:version:` || PRN | `PRN` option is set to true || CSV | (fallback) |
- HTML tags include: `html`, `table`, `head`, `meta`, `script`, `style`, `div`</details><details> <summary><b>Why are random text files valid?</b> (click to show)</summary>Excel is extremely aggressive in reading files. Adding an XLS extension to anydisplay text file (where the only characters are ANSI display chars) tricksExcel into thinking that the file is potentially a CSV or TSV file, even if itis only one column! This library attempts to replicate that behavior.
The best approach is to validate the desired worksheet and ensure it has theexpected number of rows or columns. Extracting the range is extremely simple:
```jsvar range = XLSX.utils.decode_range(worksheet['!ref']);var ncols = range.e.c - range.s.c + 1, nrows = range.e.r - range.s.r + 1;```
</details>## Writing Options
The exported `write` and `writeFile` functions accept an options argument:
| Option Name | Default | Description || :---------- | -------: | :-------------------------------------------------- ||`type` | | Output data encoding (see Output Type below) ||`cellDates` | `false` | Store dates as type `d` (default is `n`) ||`bookSST` | `false` | Generate Shared String Table ** ||`bookType` | `"xlsx"` | Type of Workbook (see below for supported formats) ||`sheet` | `""` | Name of Worksheet for single-sheet formats ** ||`compression`| `false` | Use ZIP compression for ZIP-based formats ** ||`Props` | | Override workbook properties when writing ** ||`themeXLSX` | | Override theme XML when writing XLSX/XLSB/XLSM ** ||`ignoreEC` | `true` | Suppress "number as text" errors ** |
- `bookSST` is slower and more memory intensive, but has better compatibility with older versions of iOS Numbers- The raw data is the only thing guaranteed to be saved. Features not described in this README may not be serialized.- `cellDates` only applies to XLSX output and is not guaranteed to work with third-party readers. Excel itself does not usually write cells with type `d` so non-Excel tools may ignore the data or error in the presence of dates.- `Props` is an object mirroring the workbook `Props` field. See the table from the [Workbook File Properties](#workbook-file-properties) section.- if specified, the string from `themeXLSX` will be saved as the primary theme for XLSX/XLSB/XLSM files (to `xl/theme/theme1.xml` in the ZIP)- Due to a bug in the program, some features like "Text to Columns" will crash Excel on worksheets where error conditions are ignored. The writer will mark files to ignore the error by default. Set `ignoreEC` to `false` to suppress.### Supported Output Formats
For broad compatibility with third-party tools, this library supports manyoutput formats. The specific file type is controlled with `bookType` option:
| `bookType` | file ext | container | sheets | Description || :--------- | -------: | :-------: | :----- |:------------------------------- || `xlsx` | `.xlsx` | ZIP | multi | Excel 2007+ XML Format || `xlsm` | `.xlsm` | ZIP | multi | Excel 2007+ Macro XML Format || `xlsb` | `.xlsb` | ZIP | multi | Excel 2007+ Binary Format || `biff8` | `.xls` | CFB | multi | Excel 97-2004 Workbook Format || `biff5` | `.xls` | CFB | multi | Excel 5.0/95 Workbook Format || `biff4` | `.xls` | none | single | Excel 4.0 Worksheet Format || `biff3` | `.xls` | none | single | Excel 3.0 Worksheet Format || `biff2` | `.xls` | none | single | Excel 2.0 Worksheet Format || `xlml` | `.xls` | none | multi | Excel 2003-2004 (SpreadsheetML) || `ods` | `.ods` | ZIP | multi | OpenDocument Spreadsheet || `fods` | `.fods` | none | multi | Flat OpenDocument Spreadsheet || `wk3` | `.wk3` | none | single | Lotus Workbook (WK3) || `csv` | `.csv` | none | single | Comma Separated Values || `txt` | `.txt` | none | single | UTF-16 Unicode Text (TXT) || `sylk` | `.sylk` | none | single | Symbolic Link (SYLK) || `html` | `.html` | none | single | HTML Document || `dif` | `.dif` | none | single | Data Interchange Format (DIF) || `dbf` | `.dbf` | none | single | dBASE II + VFP Extensions (DBF) || `wk1` | `.wk1` | none | single | Lotus Worksheet (WK1) || `rtf` | `.rtf` | none | single | Rich Text Format (RTF) || `prn` | `.prn` | none | single | Lotus Formatted Text || `eth` | `.eth` | none | single | Ethercalc Record Format (ETH) |
- `compression` only applies to formats with ZIP containers.- Formats that only support a single sheet require a `sheet` option specifying the worksheet. If the string is empty, the first worksheet is used.- `writeFile` will automatically guess the output file format based on the file extension if `bookType` is not specified. It will choose the first format in the aforementioned table that matches the extension.### Output Type
The `type` argument for `write` mirrors the `type` argument for `read`:
| `type` | output ||------------|-----------------------------------------------------------------|| `"base64"` | string: Base64 encoding of the file || `"binary"` | string: binary string (byte `n` is `data.charCodeAt(n)`) || `"string"` | string: JS string (characters interpreted as UTF8) || `"buffer"` | nodejs Buffer || `"array"` | ArrayBuffer, fallback array of 8-bit unsigned int || `"file"` | string: path of file that will be created (nodejs only) |
## Utility Functions
The `sheet_to_*` functions accept a worksheet and an optional options object.
The `*_to_sheet` functions accept a data object and an optional options object.
The examples are based on the following worksheet:
```XXX| A | B | C | D | E | F | G |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ 1 | S | h | e | e | t | J | S | 2 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 3 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |```
### Array of Arrays Input
`XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet` takes an array of arrays of JS values and returns aworksheet resembling the input data. Numbers, Booleans and Strings are storedas the corresponding styles. Dates are stored as date or numbers. Array holesand explicit `undefined` values are skipped. `null` values may be stubbed. Allother values are stored as strings. The function takes an options argument:
| Option Name | Default | Description || :---------- | :-----: | :--------------------------------------------------- ||`dateNF` | FMT 14 | Use specified date format in string output ||`cellDates` | false | Store dates as type `d` (default is `n`) ||`sheetStubs` | false | Create cell objects of type `z` for `null` values ||`nullError` | false | If true, emit `#NULL!` error cells for `null` values |
<details> <summary><b>Examples</b> (click to show)</summary>To generate the example sheet:
```jsvar ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([ "SheetJS".split(""), [1,2,3,4,5,6,7], [2,3,4,5,6,7,8]]);```</details>`XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa` takes an array of arrays of JS values and updates anexisting worksheet object. It follows the same process as `aoa_to_sheet` andaccepts an options argument:
| Option Name | Default | Description || :---------- | :-----: | :--------------------------------------------------- ||`dateNF` | FMT 14 | Use specified date format in string output ||`cellDates` | false | Store dates as type `d` (default is `n`) ||`sheetStubs` | false | Create cell objects of type `z` for `null` values ||`nullError` | false | If true, emit `#NULL!` error cells for `null` values ||`origin` | | Use specified cell as starting point (see below) |
`origin` is expected to be one of:
| `origin` | Description || :--------------- | :-------------------------------------------------------- || (cell object) | Use specified cell (cell object) || (string) | Use specified cell (A1-style cell) || (number >= 0) | Start from the first column at specified row (0-indexed) || -1 | Append to bottom of worksheet starting on first column || (default) | Start from cell A1 |

<details> <summary><b>Examples</b> (click to show)</summary>Consider the worksheet:
```XXX| A | B | C | D | E | F | G |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ 1 | S | h | e | e | t | J | S | 2 | 1 | 2 | | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 3 | 2 | 3 | | | 6 | 7 | 8 | 4 | 3 | 4 | | | 7 | 8 | 9 | 5 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 0 |```
This worksheet can be built up in the order `A1:G1, A2:B4, E2:G4, A5:G5`:
```js/* Initial row */var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([ "SheetJS".split("") ]);
/* Write data starting at A2 */XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [[1,2], [2,3], [3,4]], {origin: "A2"});
/* Write data starting at E2 */XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [[5,6,7], [6,7,8], [7,8,9]], {origin:{r:1, c:4}});
/* Append row */XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [[4,5,6,7,8,9,0]], {origin: -1});```
</details>### Array of Objects Input
`XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet` takes an array of objects and returns a worksheetwith automatically-generated "headers" based on the keys of the objects. Thedefault column order is determined by the first appearance of the field using`Object.keys`. The function accepts an options argument:
| Option Name | Default | Description || :---------- | :-----: | :--------------------------------------------------- ||`header` | | Use specified field order (default `Object.keys`) ** ||`dateNF` | FMT 14 | Use specified date format in string output ||`cellDates` | false | Store dates as type `d` (default is `n`) ||`skipHeader` | false | If true, do not include header row in output ||`nullError` | false | If true, emit `#NULL!` error cells for `null` values |
- All fields from each row will be written. If `header` is an array and it does not contain a particular field, the key will be appended to the array.- Cell types are deduced from the type of each value. For example, a `Date` object will generate a Date cell, while a string will generate a Text cell.- Null values will be skipped by default. If `nullError` is true, an error cell corresponding to `#NULL!` will be written to the worksheet.<details> <summary><b>Examples</b> (click to show)</summary>The original sheet cannot be reproduced using plain objects since JS object keysmust be unique. After replacing the second `e` and `S` with `e_1` and `S_1`:
```jsvar ws = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet([ { S:1, h:2, e:3, e_1:4, t:5, J:6, S_1:7 }, { S:2, h:3, e:4, e_1:5, t:6, J:7, S_1:8 }], {header:["S","h","e","e_1","t","J","S_1"]});```
Alternatively, the header row can be skipped:
```jsvar ws = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet([ { A:"S", B:"h", C:"e", D:"e", E:"t", F:"J", G:"S" }, { A: 1, B: 2, C: 3, D: 4, E: 5, F: 6, G: 7 }, { A: 2, B: 3, C: 4, D: 5, E: 6, F: 7, G: 8 }], {header:["A","B","C","D","E","F","G"], skipHeader:true});```
</details>`XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json` takes an array of objects and updates an existingworksheet object. It follows the same process as `json_to_sheet` and acceptsan options argument:
| Option Name | Default | Description || :---------- | :-----: | :--------------------------------------------------- ||`header` | | Use specified column order (default `Object.keys`) ||`dateNF` | FMT 14 | Use specified date format in string output ||`cellDates` | false | Store dates as type `d` (default is `n`) ||`skipHeader` | false | If true, do not include header row in output ||`nullError` | false | If true, emit `#NULL!` error cells for `null` values ||`origin` | | Use specified cell as starting point (see below) |
`origin` is expected to be one of:
| `origin` | Description || :--------------- | :-------------------------------------------------------- || (cell object) | Use specified cell (cell object) || (string) | Use specified cell (A1-style cell) || (number >= 0) | Start from the first column at specified row (0-indexed) || -1 | Append to bottom of worksheet starting on first column || (default) | Start from cell A1 |

<details> <summary><b>Examples</b> (click to show)</summary>Consider the worksheet:
```XXX| A | B | C | D | E | F | G |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ 1 | S | h | e | e | t | J | S | 2 | 1 | 2 | | | 5 | 6 | 7 | 3 | 2 | 3 | | | 6 | 7 | 8 | 4 | 3 | 4 | | | 7 | 8 | 9 | 5 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 0 |```
This worksheet can be built up in the order `A1:G1, A2:B4, E2:G4, A5:G5`:
```js/* Initial row */var ws = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet([ { A: "S", B: "h", C: "e", D: "e", E: "t", F: "J", G: "S" }], {header: ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G"], skipHeader: true});
/* Write data starting at A2 */XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json(ws, [ { A: 1, B: 2 }, { A: 2, B: 3 }, { A: 3, B: 4 }], {skipHeader: true, origin: "A2"});
/* Write data starting at E2 */XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json(ws, [ { A: 5, B: 6, C: 7 }, { A: 6, B: 7, C: 8 }, { A: 7, B: 8, C: 9 }], {skipHeader: true, origin: { r: 1, c: 4 }, header: [ "A", "B", "C" ]});
/* Append row */XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json(ws, [ { A: 4, B: 5, C: 6, D: 7, E: 8, F: 9, G: 0 }], {header: ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G"], skipHeader: true, origin: -1});```
</details>### HTML Table Input
`XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet` takes a table DOM element and returns a worksheetresembling the input table. Numbers are parsed. All other data will be storedas strings.
`XLSX.utils.table_to_book` produces a minimal workbook based on the worksheet.
Both functions accept options arguments:
| Option Name | Default | Description || :---------- | :------: | :-------------------------------------------------- ||`raw` | | If true, every cell will hold raw strings ||`dateNF` | FMT 14 | Use specified date format in string output ||`cellDates` | false | Store dates as type `d` (default is `n`) ||`sheetRows` | 0 | If >0, read the first `sheetRows` rows of the table ||`display` | false | If true, hidden rows and cells will not be parsed |

<details> <summary><b>Examples</b> (click to show)</summary>To generate the example sheet, start with the HTML table:
```html<table id="sheetjs"><tr><td>S</td><td>h</td><td>e</td><td>e</td><td>t</td><td>J</td><td>S</td></tr><tr><td>1</td><td>2</td><td>3</td><td>4</td><td>5</td><td>6</td><td>7</td></tr><tr><td>2</td><td>3</td><td>4</td><td>5</td><td>6</td><td>7</td><td>8</td></tr></table>```
To process the table:
```jsvar tbl = document.getElementById('sheetjs');var wb = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(tbl);```</details>Note: `XLSX.read` can handle HTML represented as strings.

`XLSX.utils.sheet_add_dom` takes a table DOM element and updates an existingworksheet object. It follows the same process as `table_to_sheet` and acceptsan options argument:
| Option Name | Default | Description || :---------- | :------: | :-------------------------------------------------- ||`raw` | | If true, every cell will hold raw strings ||`dateNF` | FMT 14 | Use specified date format in string output ||`cellDates` | false | Store dates as type `d` (default is `n`) ||`sheetRows` | 0 | If >0, read the first `sheetRows` rows of the table ||`display` | false | If true, hidden rows and cells will not be parsed |
`origin` is expected to be one of:
| `origin` | Description || :--------------- | :-------------------------------------------------------- || (cell object) | Use specified cell (cell object) || (string) | Use specified cell (A1-style cell) || (number >= 0) | Start from the first column at specified row (0-indexed) || -1 | Append to bottom of worksheet starting on first column || (default) | Start from cell A1 |

<details> <summary><b>Examples</b> (click to show)</summary>A small helper function can create gap rows between tables:
```jsfunction create_gap_rows(ws, nrows) { var ref = XLSX.utils.decode_range(ws["!ref"]); // get original range ref.e.r += nrows; // add to ending row ws["!ref"] = XLSX.utils.encode_range(ref); // reassign row}
/* first table */var ws = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(document.getElementById('table1'));create_gap_rows(ws, 1); // one row gap after first table
/* second table */XLSX.utils.sheet_add_dom(ws, document.getElementById('table2'), {origin: -1});create_gap_rows(ws, 3); // three rows gap after second table
/* third table */XLSX.utils.sheet_add_dom(ws, document.getElementById('table3'), {origin: -1});```
</details>### Formulae Output
`XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae` generates an array of commands that representhow a person would enter data into an application. Each entry is of the form`A1-cell-address=formula-or-value`. String literals are prefixed with a `'` inaccordance with Excel.
<details> <summary><b>Examples</b> (click to show)</summary>For the example sheet:
```js> var o = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae(ws);> [o[0], o[5], o[10], o[15], o[20]];[ 'A1=\'S', 'F1=\'J', 'D2=4', 'B3=3', 'G3=8' ]```</details>### Delimiter-Separated Output
As an alternative to the `writeFile` CSV type, `XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv` alsoproduces CSV output. The function takes an options argument:
| Option Name | Default | Description || :----------- | :------: | :------------------------------------------------- ||`FS` | `","` | "Field Separator" delimiter between fields ||`RS` | `"\n"` | "Record Separator" delimiter between rows ||`dateNF` | FMT 14 | Use specified date format in string output ||`strip` | false | Remove trailing field separators in each record ** ||`blankrows` | true | Include blank lines in the CSV output ||`skipHidden` | false | Skips hidden rows/columns in the CSV output ||`forceQuotes` | false | Force quotes around fields |
- `strip` will remove trailing commas from each line under default `FS/RS`- `blankrows` must be set to `false` to skip blank lines.- Fields containing the record or field separator will automatically be wrapped in double quotes; `forceQuotes` forces all cells to be wrapped in quotes.<details> <summary><b>Examples</b> (click to show)</summary>For the example sheet:
```js> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(ws));S,h,e,e,t,J,S1,2,3,4,5,6,72,3,4,5,6,7,8> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(ws, {FS:"\t"}));S h e e t J S1 2 3 4 5 6 72 3 4 5 6 7 8> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(ws,{FS:":",RS:"|"}));S:h:e:e:t:J:S|1:2:3:4:5:6:7|2:3:4:5:6:7:8|```</details>#### UTF-16 Unicode Text
The `txt` output type uses the tab character as the field separator. If the`codepage` library is available (included in full distribution but not core),the output will be encoded in `CP1200` and the BOM will be prepended.
`XLSX.utils.sheet_to_txt` takes the same arguments as `sheet_to_csv`.
### HTML Output
As an alternative to the `writeFile` HTML type, `XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html` alsoproduces HTML output. The function takes an options argument:
| Option Name | Default | Description || :---------- | :------: | :-------------------------------------------------- ||`id` | | Specify the `id` attribute for the `TABLE` element ||`editable` | false | If true, set `contenteditable="true"` for every TD ||`header` | | Override header (default `html body`) ||`footer` | | Override footer (default `/body /html`) |
<details> <summary><b>Examples</b> (click to show)</summary>For the example sheet:
```js> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(ws));// ...```</details>### JSON
`XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json` generates different types of JS objects. The functiontakes an options argument:
| Option Name | Default | Description || :---------- | :------: | :-------------------------------------------------- ||`raw` | `true` | Use raw values (true) or formatted strings (false) ||`range` | from WS | Override Range (see table below) ||`header` | | Control output format (see table below) ||`dateNF` | FMT 14 | Use specified date format in string output ||`defval` | | Use specified value in place of null or undefined ||`blankrows` | ** | Include blank lines in the output ** |
- `raw` only affects cells which have a format code (`.z`) field or a formatted text (`.w`) field.- If `header` is specified, the first row is considered a data row; if `header` is not specified, the first row is the header row and not considered data.- When `header` is not specified, the conversion will automatically disambiguate header entries by affixing `_` and a count starting at `1`. For example, if three columns have header `foo` the output fields are `foo`, `foo_1`, `foo_2`- `null` values are returned when `raw` is true but are skipped when false.- If `defval` is not specified, null and undefined values are skipped normally. If specified, all null and undefined points will be filled with `defval`- When `header` is `1`, the default is to generate blank rows. `blankrows` must be set to `false` to skip blank rows.- When `header` is not `1`, the default is to skip blank rows. `blankrows` must be true to generate blank rows`range` is expected to be one of:
| `range` | Description || :--------------- | :-------------------------------------------------------- || (number) | Use worksheet range but set starting row to the value || (string) | Use specified range (A1-style bounded range string) || (default) | Use worksheet range (`ws['!ref']`) |
`header` is expected to be one of:
| `header` | Description || :--------------- | :-------------------------------------------------------- || `1` | Generate an array of arrays ("2D Array") || `"A"` | Row object keys are literal column labels || array of strings | Use specified strings as keys in row objects || (default) | Read and disambiguate first row as keys |
If header is not `1`, the row object will contain the non-enumerable property`__rowNum__` that represents the row of the sheet corresponding to the entry.
<details> <summary><b>Examples</b> (click to show)</summary>For the example sheet:
```js> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws);[ { S: 1, h: 2, e: 3, e_1: 4, t: 5, J: 6, S_1: 7 }, { S: 2, h: 3, e: 4, e_1: 5, t: 6, J: 7, S_1: 8 } ]> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:"A"});[ { A: 'S', B: 'h', C: 'e', D: 'e', E: 't', F: 'J', G: 'S' }, { A: '1', B: '2', C: '3', D: '4', E: '5', F: '6', G: '7' }, { A: '2', B: '3', C: '4', D: '5', E: '6', F: '7', G: '8' } ]> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:["A","E","I","O","U","6","9"]});[ { '6': 'J', '9': 'S', A: 'S', E: 'h', I: 'e', O: 'e', U: 't' }, { '6': '6', '9': '7', A: '1', E: '2', I: '3', O: '4', U: '5' }, { '6': '7', '9': '8', A: '2', E: '3', I: '4', O: '5', U: '6' } ]> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:1});[ [ 'S', 'h', 'e', 'e', 't', 'J', 'S' ], [ '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7' ], [ '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8' ] ]```
Example showing the effect of `raw`:
```js> ws['A2'].w = "3"; // set A2 formatted string value> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:1, raw:false});[ [ 'S', 'h', 'e', 'e', 't', 'J', 'S' ], [ '3', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7' ], // <-- A2 uses the formatted string [ '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8' ] ]> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:1});[ [ 'S', 'h', 'e', 'e', 't', 'J', 'S' ], [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ], // <-- A2 uses the raw value [ 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ] ]```</details>## File Formats
Despite the library name `xlsx`, it supports numerous spreadsheet file formats:
| Format | Read | Write ||:-------------------------------------------------------------|:-----:|:-----:|| **Excel Worksheet/Workbook Formats** |:-----:|:-----:|| Excel 2007+ XML Formats (XLSX/XLSM) | ✔ | ✔ || Excel 2007+ Binary Format (XLSB BIFF12) | ✔ | ✔ || Excel 2003-2004 XML Format (XML "SpreadsheetML") | ✔ | ✔ || Excel 97-2004 (XLS BIFF8) | ✔ | ✔ || Excel 5.0/95 (XLS BIFF5) | ✔ | ✔ || Excel 4.0 (XLS/XLW BIFF4) | ✔ | ✔ || Excel 3.0 (XLS BIFF3) | ✔ | ✔ || Excel 2.0/2.1 (XLS BIFF2) | ✔ | ✔ || **Excel Supported Text Formats** |:-----:|:-----:|| Delimiter-Separated Values (CSV/TXT) | ✔ | ✔ || Data Interchange Format (DIF) | ✔ | ✔ || Symbolic Link (SYLK/SLK) | ✔ | ✔ || Lotus Formatted Text (PRN) | ✔ | ✔ || UTF-16 Unicode Text (TXT) | ✔ | ✔ || **Other Workbook/Worksheet Formats** |:-----:|:-----:|| Numbers 3.0+ / iWork 2013+ Spreadsheet (NUMBERS) | ✔ | || OpenDocument Spreadsheet (ODS) | ✔ | ✔ || Flat XML ODF Spreadsheet (FODS) | ✔ | ✔ || Uniform Office Format Spreadsheet (标文通 UOS1/UOS2) | ✔ | || dBASE II/III/IV / Visual FoxPro (DBF) | ✔ | ✔ || Lotus 1-2-3 (WK1/WK3) | ✔ | ✔ || Lotus 1-2-3 (WKS/WK2/WK4/123) | ✔ | || Quattro Pro Spreadsheet (WQ1/WQ2/WB1/WB2/WB3/QPW) | ✔ | || Works 1.x-3.x DOS / 2.x-5.x Windows Spreadsheet (WKS) | ✔ | || Works 6.x-9.x Spreadsheet (XLR) | ✔ | || **Other Common Spreadsheet Output Formats** |:-----:|:-----:|| HTML Tables | ✔ | ✔ || Rich Text Format tables (RTF) | | ✔ || Ethercalc Record Format (ETH) | ✔ | ✔ |
Features not supported by a given file format will not be written. Formats withrange limits will be silently truncated:
| Format | Last Cell | Max Cols | Max Rows ||:------------------------------------------|:-----------|---------:|---------:|| Excel 2007+ XML Formats (XLSX/XLSM) | XFD1048576 | 16384 | 1048576 || Excel 2007+ Binary Format (XLSB BIFF12) | XFD1048576 | 16384 | 1048576 || Excel 97-2004 (XLS BIFF8) | IV65536 | 256 | 65536 || Excel 5.0/95 (XLS BIFF5) | IV16384 | 256 | 16384 || Excel 4.0 (XLS BIFF4) | IV16384 | 256 | 16384 || Excel 3.0 (XLS BIFF3) | IV16384 | 256 | 16384 || Excel 2.0/2.1 (XLS BIFF2) | IV16384 | 256 | 16384 || Lotus 1-2-3 R2 - R5 (WK1/WK3/WK4) | IV8192 | 256 | 8192 || Lotus 1-2-3 R1 (WKS) | IV2048 | 256 | 2048 |
Excel 2003 SpreadsheetML range limits are governed by the version of Excel andare not enforced by the writer.
<details> <summary><b>File Format Details</b> (click to show)</summary>**Core Spreadsheet Formats**
- **Excel 2007+ XML (XLSX/XLSM)**XLSX and XLSM files are ZIP containers containing a series of XML files inaccordance with the Open Packaging Conventions (OPC). The XLSM format, almostidentical to XLSX, is used for files containing macros.
The format is standardized in ECMA-376 and later in ISO/IEC 29500. Excel doesnot follow the specification, and there are additional documents discussing howExcel deviates from the specification.
- **Excel 2.0-95 (BIFF2/BIFF3/BIFF4/BIFF5)**BIFF 2/3 XLS are single-sheet streams of binary records. Excel 4 introducedthe concept of a workbook (`XLW` files) but also had single-sheet `XLS` format.The structure is largely similar to the Lotus 1-2-3 file formats. BIFF5/8/12extended the format in various ways but largely stuck to the same record format.
There is no official specification for any of these formats. Excel 95 can writefiles in these formats, so record lengths and fields were determined by writingin all of the supported formats and comparing files. Excel 2016 can generateBIFF5 files, enabling a full suite of file tests starting from XLSX or BIFF2.
- **Excel 97-2004 Binary (BIFF8)**BIFF8 exclusively uses the Compound File Binary container format, splitting somecontent into streams within the file. At its core, it still uses an extendedversion of the binary record format from older versions of BIFF.
The `MS-XLS` specification covers the basics of the file format, and otherspecifications expand on serialization of features like properties.
- **Excel 2003-2004 (SpreadsheetML)**Predating XLSX, SpreadsheetML files are simple XML files. There is no officialand comprehensive specification, although MS has released documentation on theformat. Since Excel 2016 can generate SpreadsheetML files, mapping features ispretty straightforward.
- **Excel 2007+ Binary (XLSB, BIFF12)**Introduced in parallel with XLSX, the XLSB format combines the BIFF architecturewith the content separation and ZIP container of XLSX. For the most part nodesin an XLSX sub-file can be mapped to XLSB records in a corresponding sub-file.
The `MS-XLSB` specification covers the basics of the file format, and otherspecifications expand on serialization of features like properties.
- **Delimiter-Separated Values (CSV/TXT)**Excel CSV deviates from RFC4180 in a number of important ways. The generatedCSV files should generally work in Excel although they may not work in RFC4180compatible readers. The parser should generally understand Excel CSV. Thewriter proactively generates cells for formulae if values are unavailable.
Excel TXT uses tab as the delimiter and code page 1200.
Like in Excel, files starting with `0x49 0x44 ("ID")` are treated as SymbolicLink files. Unlike Excel, if the file does not have a valid SYLK header, itwill be proactively reinterpreted as CSV. There are some files with semicolondelimiter that align with a valid SYLK file. For the broadest compatibility,all cells with the value of `ID` are automatically wrapped in double-quotes.
**Miscellaneous Workbook Formats**
Support for other formats is generally far behind XLS/XLSB/XLSX support, due inpart to a lack of publicly available documentation. Test files were produced inthe respective apps and compared to their XLS exports to determine structure.The main focus is data extraction.
- **Lotus 1-2-3 (WKS/WK1/WK2/WK3/WK4/123)**The Lotus formats consist of binary records similar to the BIFF structure. Lotusdid release a specification decades ago covering the original WK1 format. Otherfeatures were deduced by producing files and comparing to Excel support.
Generated WK1 worksheets are compatible with Lotus 1-2-3 R2 and Excel 5.0.
Generated WK3 workbooks are compatible with Lotus 1-2-3 R9 and Excel 5.0.
- **Quattro Pro (WQ1/WQ2/WB1/WB2/WB3/QPW)**The Quattro Pro formats use binary records in the same way as BIFF and Lotus.Some of the newer formats (namely WB3 and QPW) use a CFB enclosure just likeBIFF8 XLS.
- **Works for DOS / Windows Spreadsheet (WKS/XLR)**All versions of Works were limited to a single worksheet.
Works for DOS 1.x - 3.x and Works for Windows 2.x extends the Lotus WKS formatwith additional record types.
Works for Windows 3.x - 5.x uses the same format and WKS extension. The BOFrecord has type `FF`
Works for Windows 6.x - 9.x use the XLR format. XLR is nearly identical toBIFF8 XLS: it uses the CFB container with a Workbook stream. Works 9 saves theexact Workbook stream for the XLR and the 97-2003 XLS export. Works 6 XLSincludes two empty worksheets but the main worksheet has an identical encoding.XLR also includes a `WksSSWorkBook` stream similar to Lotus FM3/FMT files.
- **Numbers 3.0+ / iWork 2013+ Spreadsheet (NUMBERS)**iWork 2013 (Numbers 3.0 / Pages 5.0 / Keynote 6.0) switched from a proprietaryXML-based format to the current file format based on the iWork Archive (IWA).This format has been used up through the current release (Numbers 11.2).
The parser focuses on extracting raw data from tables. Numbers technicallysupports multiple tables in a logical worksheet, including custom titles. Thisparser will generate one worksheet per Numbers table.
- **OpenDocument Spreadsheet (ODS/FODS)**ODS is an XML-in-ZIP format akin to XLSX while FODS is an XML format akin toSpreadsheetML. Both are detailed in the OASIS standard, but tools like LO/OOadd undocumented extensions. The parsers and writers do not implement the fullstandard, instead focusing on parts necessary to extract and store raw data.
- **Uniform Office Spreadsheet (UOS1/2)**UOS is a very similar format, and it comes in 2 varieties corresponding to ODSand FODS respectively. For the most part, the difference between the formatsis in the names of tags and attributes.
**Miscellaneous Worksheet Formats**
Many older formats supported only one worksheet:
- **dBASE and Visual FoxPro (DBF)**DBF is really a typed table format: each column can only hold one data type andeach record omits type information. The parser generates a header row andinserts records starting at the second row of the worksheet. The writer makesfiles compatible with Visual FoxPro extensions.
Multi-file extensions like external memos and tables are currently unsupported,limited by the general ability to read arbitrary files in the web browser. Thereader understands DBF Level 7 extensions like DATETIME.
- **Symbolic Link (SYLK)**There is no real documentation. All knowledge was gathered by saving files invarious versions of Excel to deduce the meaning of fields. Notes:
- Plain formulae are stored in the RC form.- Column widths are rounded to integral characters.- **Lotus Formatted Text (PRN)**There is no real documentation, and in fact Excel treats PRN as an output-onlyfile format. Nevertheless we can guess the column widths and reverse-engineerthe original layout. Excel's 240 character width limitation is not enforced.
- **Data Interchange Format (DIF)**There is no unified definition. Visicalc DIF differs from Lotus DIF, and bothdiffer from Excel DIF. Where ambiguous, the parser/writer follows the expectedbehavior from Excel. In particular, Excel extends DIF in incompatible ways:
- Since Excel automatically converts numbers-as-strings to numbers, numeric string constants are converted to formulae: `"0.3" -> "=""0.3""`- DIF technically expects numeric cells to hold the raw numeric data, but Excel permits formatted numbers (including dates)- DIF technically has no support for formulae, but Excel will automatically convert plain formulae. Array formulae are not preserved.- **HTML**Excel HTML worksheets include special metadata encoded in styles. For example,`mso-number-format` is a localized string containing the number format. Despitethe metadata the output is valid HTML, although it does accept bare `&` symbols.
The writer adds type metadata to the TD elements via the `t` tag. The parserlooks for those tags and overrides the default interpretation. For example, textlike `<td>12345</td>` will be parsed as numbers but `<td t="s">12345</td>` willbe parsed as text.
- **Rich Text Format (RTF)**Excel RTF worksheets are stored in clipboard when copying cells or ranges from aworksheet. The supported codes are a subset of the Word RTF support.
- **Ethercalc Record Format (ETH)**[Ethercalc](https://ethercalc.net/) is an open source web spreadsheet powered bya record format reminiscent of SYLK wrapped in a MIME multi-part message.
</details>
## Testing
### Node
<details> <summary>(click to show)</summary>`make test` will run the node-based tests. By default it runs tests on files inevery supported format. To test a specific file type, set `FMTS` to the formatyou want to test. Feature-specific tests are available with `make test_misc`
```bash$ make test_misc # run core tests$ make test # run full tests$ make test_xls # only use the XLS test files$ make test_xlsx # only use the XLSX test files$ make test_xlsb # only use the XLSB test files$ make test_xml # only use the XML test files$ make test_ods # only use the ODS test files```
To enable all errors, set the environment variable `WTF=1`:
```bash$ make test # run full tests$ WTF=1 make test # enable all error messages```
`flow` and `eslint` checks are available:
```bash$ make lint # eslint checks$ make flow # make lint + Flow checking$ make tslint # check TS definitions```
</details>### Browser
<details> <summary>(click to show)</summary>The core in-browser tests are available at `tests/index.html` within this repo.Start a local server and navigate to that directory to run the tests.`make ctestserv` will start a server on port 8000.
`make ctest` will generate the browser fixtures. To add more files, edit the`tests/fixtures.lst` file and add the paths.
To run the full in-browser tests, clone the repo for[`oss.sheetjs.com`](https://github.com/SheetJS/SheetJS.github.io) and replacethe `xlsx.js` file (then open a browser window and go to `stress.html`):
```bash$ cp xlsx.js ../SheetJS.github.io$ cd ../SheetJS.github.io$ simplehttpserver # or "python -mSimpleHTTPServer" or "serve"$ open -a Chromium.app http://localhost:8000/stress.html```</details>### Tested Environments
<details> <summary>(click to show)</summary> - NodeJS `0.8`, `0.10`, `0.12`, `4.x`, `5.x`, `6.x`, `7.x`, `8.x` - IE 6/7/8/9/10/11 (IE 6-9 require shims) - Chrome 24+ (including Android 4.0+) - Safari 6+ (iOS and Desktop) - Edge 13+, FF 18+, and Opera 12+Tests utilize the mocha testing framework.
- <https://saucelabs.com/u/sheetjs> for XLS\* modules using Sauce LabsThe test suite also includes tests for various time zones. To changethe timezone locally, set the TZ environment variable:
```bash$ env TZ="Asia/Kolkata" WTF=1 make test_misc```
</details>### Test Files
Test files are housed in [another repo](https://github.com/SheetJS/test_files).
Running `make init` will refresh the `test_files` submodule and get the files.Note that this requires `svn`, `git`, `hg` and other commands that may not beavailable. If `make init` fails, please download the latest version of the testfiles snapshot from [the repo](https://github.com/SheetJS/test_files/releases)
<details> <summary><b>Latest Snapshot</b> (click to show)</summary>Latest test files snapshot:<http://github.com/SheetJS/test_files/releases/download/20170409/test_files.zip>(download and unzip to the `test_files` subdirectory)
</details>## Contributing
Due to the precarious nature of the Open Specifications Promise, it is veryimportant to ensure code is cleanroom. [Contribution Notes](CONTRIBUTING.md)
<details> <summary><b>File organization</b> (click to show)</summary>At a high level, the final script is a concatenation of the individual files inthe `bits` folder. Running `make` should reproduce the final output on allplatforms. The README is similarly split into bits in the `docbits` folder.
Folders:
| folder | contents ||:-------------|:--------------------------------------------------------------|| `bits` | raw source files that make up the final script || `docbits` | raw markdown files that make up `README.md` || `bin` | server-side bin scripts (`xlsx.njs`) || `dist` | dist files for web browsers and nonstandard JS environments || `demos` | demo projects for platforms like ExtendScript and Webpack || `tests` | browser tests (run `make ctest` to rebuild) || `types` | typescript definitions and tests || `misc` | miscellaneous supporting scripts || `test_files` | test files (pulled from the test files repository) |
</details>After cloning the repo, running `make help` will display a list of commands.
### OSX/Linux
<details> <summary>(click to show)</summary>The `xlsx.js` file is constructed from the files in the `bits` subdirectory. Thebuild script (run `make`) will concatenate the individual bits to produce thescript. Before submitting a contribution, ensure that running make will producethe `xlsx.js` file exactly. The simplest way to test is to add the script:
```bash$ git add xlsx.js$ make clean$ make$ git diff xlsx.js```
To produce the dist files, run `make dist`. The dist files are updated in eachversion release and *should not be committed between versions*.</details>### Windows
<details> <summary>(click to show)</summary>The included `make.cmd` script will build `xlsx.js` from the `bits` directory.Building is as simple as:
```cmd> make```
To prepare development environment:
```cmd> make init```
The full list of commands available in Windows are displayed in `make help`:
```make init -- install deps and global modulesmake lint -- run eslint lintermake test -- run mocha test suitemake misc -- run smaller test suitemake book -- rebuild README and summarymake help -- display this message```
As explained in [Test Files](#test-files), on Windows the release ZIP file mustbe downloaded and extracted. If Bash on Windows is available, it is possibleto run the OSX/Linux workflow. The following steps prepares the environment:
```bash# Install support programs for the build and test commandssudo apt-get install make git subversion mercurial
# Install nodejs and NPM within the WSLwget -qO- https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_8.x | sudo bashsudo apt-get install nodejs
# Install dev dependenciessudo npm install -g mocha voc blanket xlsjs```
</details>### Tests
<details> <summary>(click to show)</summary>The `test_misc` target (`make test_misc` on Linux/OSX / `make misc` on Windows)runs the targeted feature tests. It should take 5-10 seconds to perform featuretests without testing against the entire test battery. New features should beaccompanied with tests for the relevant file formats and features.
For tests involving the read side, an appropriate feature test would involvereading an existing file and checking the resulting workbook object. If aparameter is involved, files should be read with different values to verify thatthe feature is working as expected.
For tests involving a new write feature which can already be parsed, appropriatefeature tests would involve writing a workbook with the feature and then openingand verifying that the feature is preserved.
For tests involving a new write feature without an existing read ability, pleaseadd a feature test to the kitchen sink `tests/write.js`.</details>## License
Please consult the attached LICENSE file for details. All rights not explicitlygranted by the Apache 2.0 License are reserved by the Original Author.

## References
<details> <summary><b>OSP-covered Specifications</b> (click to show)</summary> - `MS-CFB`: Compound File Binary File Format - `MS-CTXLS`: Excel Custom Toolbar Binary File Format - `MS-EXSPXML3`: Excel Calculation Version 2 Web Service XML Schema - `MS-ODATA`: Open Data Protocol (OData) - `MS-ODRAW`: Office Drawing Binary File Format - `MS-ODRAWXML`: Office Drawing Extensions to Office Open XML Structure - `MS-OE376`: Office Implementation Information for ECMA-376 Standards Support - `MS-OFFCRYPTO`: Office Document Cryptography Structure - `MS-OI29500`: Office Implementation Information for ISO/IEC 29500 Standards Support - `MS-OLEDS`: Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Data Structures - `MS-OLEPS`: Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Property Set Data Structures - `MS-OODF3`: Office Implementation Information for ODF 1.2 Standards Support - `MS-OSHARED`: Office Common Data Types and Objects Structures - `MS-OVBA`: Office VBA File Format Structure - `MS-XLDM`: Spreadsheet Data Model File Format - `MS-XLS`: Excel Binary File Format (.xls) Structure Specification - `MS-XLSB`: Excel (.xlsb) Binary File Format - `MS-XLSX`: Excel (.xlsx) Extensions to the Office Open XML SpreadsheetML File Format - `XLS`: Microsoft Office Excel 97-2007 Binary File Format Specification - `RTF`: Rich Text Format</details>- ISO/IEC 29500:2012(E) "Information technology — Document description and processing languages — Office Open XML File Formats"- Open Document Format for Office Applications Version 1.2 (29 September 2011)- Worksheet File Format (From Lotus) December 1984