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A middleware framework for handling HTTP with Deno, Node, Bun and Cloudflare Workers 🐿️ 🦕
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Unit testing your middleware can be challenging, especially if you have to open up a network port and send requests into an application just to see if your middleware responds as expected.

To help with this, oak exposes its internal mocking library as part of the public API.

The testing utilities are exported from the /mod.ts under a testing namespace. To import the namespace, you would want to import it like:

import { testing } from "";


The most common usage would be creating a mock context, which would include a request and response, and then using that context to call your middleware, and then making assertions against the result of that middleware.

In the following example, we will create a middleware that checks if the request path is "/a" and if so, sets the body and a header in the response:

import { testing } from "";
import type { Middleware } from "";
import { assert, assertEquals } from "";

const mw: Middleware = async (ctx, next) => {
  await next();
  if (ctx.request.url.pathname === "/a") {
    ctx.response.body = "Hello a";
    ctx.response.headers.set("x-hello-a", "hello");

  name: "example test",
  async fn() {
    const ctx = testing.createMockContext({
      path: "/a",
    const next = testing.createMockNext();

    await mw(ctx, next);

    assertEquals(ctx.response.body, "Hello a");


This creates a mock application which takes a single optional argument of state which represents the state of the application.


This creates a mock context. This is the most useful feature of the library and accepts a set of options that adhere to this interface:

export interface MockContextOptions<
  P extends RouteParams = RouteParams,
  S extends State = Record<string, any>,
> {
  app?: Application<S>;
  method?: string;
  params?: P;
  path?: string;
  state?: S;

The function generates a mock that can either be used as a regular Context or as a RouterContext.


This creates a next() function which can be used when calling middleware.