Skip to main content


👻 Primitive and flexible state management for React
Go to Latest
---title: Storagenav: 3.01keywords: storage,localstorage,sessionstorage,asyncstorage,persist,persistence---
## atomWithStorage
```jsximport { useAtom } from 'jotai'import { atomWithStorage } from 'jotai/utils'
const darkModeAtom = atomWithStorage('darkMode', false)
const Page = () => { const [darkMode, setDarkMode] = useAtom(darkModeAtom) return ( <> <h1>Welcome to {darkMode ? 'dark' : 'light'} mode!</h1> <button onClick={() => setDarkMode(!darkMode)}>toggle theme</button> </> )}```
The `atomWithStorage` function creates an atom with a value persisted in `localStorage` or `sessionStorage` for React or `AsyncStorage` for React Native.
### Parameters
**key** (required): a unique string used as the key when syncing state with localStorage, sessionStorage, or AsyncStorage
**initialValue** (required): the initial value of the atom
**storage** (optional): an object with the following methods:
- **getItem(key, initialValue)** (required): Reads an item from storage, or falls back to the `intialValue`- **setItem(key, value)** (required): Saves an item to storage- **removeItem(key)** (required): Deletes the item from storage- **subscribe(key, callback, initialValue)** (optional): A method which subscribes to external storage updates.**options** (optional): an object with the following properties:
- **getOnInit** (optional, by default **false**): A boolean value indicating whether to get item from storage on initialization. Note that in an SPA with `getOnInit` either not set or `false` you will always get the initial value instead of the stored value on initialization. If the stored value is preferred set `getOnInit` to `true`.If not specified, the default storage implementation uses `localStorage` for storage/retrieval, `JSON.stringify()`/`JSON.parse()` for serialization/deserialization, and subscribes to `storage` events for cross-tab synchronization.
<CodeSandbox id="vuwi7" />### `createJSONStorage` util
To create a custom storage implementation with `JSON.stringify()`/`JSON.parse()` for the `storage` option, `createJSONStorage` util is provided.
```jsconst storage = createJSONStorage( // getStringStorage () => localStorage, // or sessionStorage, asyncStorage or alike // options (optional) { reviver, // optional reviver option for JSON.parse replacer, // optional replacer option for JSON.stringify },)```
Note: `JSON.parse` is not type safe. If it can't accept any types, some kind of validation would be necessary for production apps.
### Server-side rendering
Any JSX markup that depends on the value of a stored atom (e.g., a `className` or `style` prop) will use the `initialValue` when rendered on the server (since `localStorage` and `sessionStorage` are not available on the server).
This means that there will be a mismatch between what is originally served to the user's browser as HTML and what is expected by React during the rehydration process if the user has a `storedValue` that differs from the `initialValue`.
The suggested workaround for this issue is to only render the content dependent on the `storedValue` client-side by wrapping it in a [custom `<ClientOnly>` wrapper](, which only renders after rehydration. Alternative solutions are technically possible, but would require a brief "flicker" as the `initialValue` is swapped to the `storedValue`, which can result in an unpleasant user experience, so this solution is advised.
### Deleting an item from storage
For the case you want to delete an item from storage,the atom created with `atomWithStorage` accepts the `RESET` symbol on write.
See the following example for the usage:
```jsximport { useAtom } from 'jotai'import { atomWithStorage, RESET } from 'jotai/utils'
const textAtom = atomWithStorage('text', 'hello')
const TextBox = () => { const [text, setText] = useAtom(textAtom) return ( <> <input value={text} onChange={(e) => setText(} /> <button onClick={() => setText(RESET)}>Reset (to 'hello')</button> </> )}```
If needed, you can also do conditional resets based on previous value.
This can be particularly useful if you wish to clear keys in localStorage if previous values meet a condition.
Below exemplifies this usage that clears the `visible` key whenever the previous value is `true`.
```jsximport { useAtom } from 'jotai'import { atomWithStorage, RESET } from 'jotai/utils'
const isVisibleAtom = atomWithStorage('visible', false)
const TextBox = () => { const [isVisible, setIsVisible] = useAtom(isVisibleAtom) return ( <> { isVisible && <h1>Header is visible!</h1> } <button onClick={() => setIsVisible((prev) => prev ? RESET : true))}>Toggle visible</button> </> )}```
### React-Native implementation
You can use any library that implements `getItem`, `setItem` & `removeItem`.Let's say you would use the standard AsyncStorage provided by the community.
```jsimport { atomWithStorage, createJSONStorage } from 'jotai/utils'import AsyncStorage from '@react-native-async-storage/async-storage'
const storage = createJSONStorage(() => AsyncStorage)const content = {} // anything JSON serializableconst storedAtom = atomWithStorage('stored-key', content, storage)```
#### Notes with AsyncStorage (since v2.2.0)
If you use any kinds of AsyncStorage, the atom value can become async. Hence, if you are to update the value, you need to possibly resolve the promise.
```jsconst countAtom = atomWithStorage('count-key', 0, anyAsyncStorage)const Component = () => { const [count, setCount] = useAtom(countAtom) const increment = () => { setCount(async (promiseOrValue) => (await promiseOrValue) + 1) } // ...}```
### Validating stored values
To add runtime validation to your storage atoms, you will need to create a custom implementation of storage.
Below is an example that utilizes Zod to validate values stored in `localStorage` with cross-tab synchronization.
```jsimport { atomWithStorage } from 'jotai/utils'import { z } from 'zod'
const myNumberSchema = z.number().int().nonnegative()
const storedNumberAtom = atomWithStorage('my-number', 0, { getItem(key, initialValue) { const storedValue = localStorage.getItem(key) try { return myNumberSchema.parse(JSON.parse(storedValue ?? '')) } catch { return initialValue } }, setItem(key, value) { localStorage.setItem(key, JSON.stringify(value)) }, removeItem(key) { localStorage.removeItem(key) }, subscribe(key, callback, initialValue) { if ( typeof window === 'undefined' || typeof window.addEventListener === 'undefined' ) { return } window.addEventListener('storage', (e) => { if (e.storageArea === localStorage && e.key === key) { let newValue try { newValue = myNumberSchema.parse(JSON.parse(e.newValue ?? '')) } catch { newValue = initialValue } callback(newValue) } }) },})```
We also have a new util `unstable_withStorageValidator` to simplify some cases.The above case would become:
```jsimport { atomWithStorage, createJSONStorage, unstable_withStorageValidator as withStorageValidator,} from 'jotai/utils'import { z } from 'zod'
const myNumberSchema = z.number().int().nonnegative()const isMyNumber = (v) => myNumberSchema.safeParse(v).success);
const storedNumberAtom = atomWithStorage( 'my-number', 0, withStorageValidator(isMyNumber)(createJSONStorage()),)```